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Geology. Mineral (definition) naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition a definite crystalline structure

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Mineral (definition)

  • naturally occurring,
  • inorganic solid
  • with a specific chemical composition
  • a definite crystalline structure
  • Minerals can form from the cooling of magma which is the molten material found beneath Earth’s surface as magma rises closer to the surface the molten compounds no longer move freely and they begin to interact chemically to form minerals
  • Minerals form by combining elements together to create compounds. Each compound is unique and has specific properties that separate it from other compounds
  • Minerals are like rocks because all rocks are made of minerals
mineral properties
Mineral Properties
  • Streak is easily determined by rubbing the mineral across an unglazed porcelain plate
mineral properties1
Mineral Properties
  • Streak is used to distinguish pyrite from gold



mineral properties2
Mineral Properties
  • Luster is the way a mineral reflects light from its surface and is caused by differences in mineral chemical compositions
mineral properties3
Mineral Properties
  • Either metallic or nonmetallic (dull, pearly, waxy, silky)
mineral properties4
Mineral Properties
  • Texture describes how a mineral feels to the touch
    • Rough, smooth, ragged, greasy, soapy, glassy
mineral properties5
Mineral Properties
  • Hardness is a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched and is determined by the arrangement of it’s atoms.
mineral properties6
Mineral Properties
  • The Mohs hardness scale is used to compare a sample to the hardness of ten known minerals
mineral properties7
Mineral Properties
  • Cleavage determines whether a mineral will split easily and evenly along one or more flat planes
mineral properties8
Mineral Properties
  • Mica has perfect cleavage in one direction
  • Halite has cubic cleavage (3 planes)
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Mineral Properties
  • Fracture means the mineral is tightly bonded and breaks with rough or jagged edges
    • Quartz has fracture
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Mineral Properties
  • Specific Gravity compares the weight of the mineral to an equal volume of water at 4 degrees C
mineral properties11
Mineral Properties
  • Special Properties such as light reflection and reactions to acids are also useful tools
mineral properties12
Mineral Properties
  • Calcite fizzles when in contact with HCl
mineral properties13
Mineral Properties
  • Calcite also can cause double images
mineral properties14
Mineral Properties
  • Magnetite will attract iron
mineral properties15
Mineral Properties
  • Sulfur produces a rotten egg odor
  • Small crystals means the magma cooled rapidly
  • Large crystals means the magma cooled more slowly
  • Silicates are the most abundant group (96%) containing the two most abundant elements in the crust Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O)
  • Quartz and Feldspar are the most abundant minerals found in Earth’s crust
  • Carbonates are minerals composed of one or more metallic elements with the carbonate compound CO3 ( 1 atom of carbon and 3 atoms off oxygen)
  • Carbonates are the primary minerals in rocks such as limestone, coquina, and marble




uses for earth materials
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Nearly every single thing we use today comes from Earth directly or indirectly. The following is a list of minerals and ores
uses for earth materials1
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Name of mineral/ore Use(s)

Quartz (mineral) Glass, watches

uses for earth materials2
Uses for Earth Materials

Feldspar (mineral) Toothpaste

uses for earth materials3
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Calcite (mineral) Neutralizing acids
uses for earth materials4
Uses for Earth Materials

Mica (mineral) Lampshades,

insulation, makeup

uses for earth materials5
Uses for Earth Materials

Pyrite (ore) Iron

uses for earth materials7
Uses for Earth Materials
  • Bauxite Aluminum
virginia s important resources1
Virginia’s Important Resources
  • Gravel/stone (all) RoadConstruction
virginia s important resources3
Virginia’s Important Resources
  • Granite Building


virginia s important resources5
Virginia’s Important Resources
  • zirconium & titanium advanced metallurgy
what are rocks
What are Rocks?
  • A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matter
  • Rocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and texture
  • Rocks change over time through the rock cycle
igneous rocks
Igneous Rocks
  • Igneous rock begins as magma.
  • Magma can form:
      • When rock is heated
      • When pressure is released
      • When rock changes composition
  • Magma freezes between

700 °C and 1,250 °C

  • Magma is a mixture of

many minerals

igneous rocks1
Igneous Rocks
  • Felsic: light colored rocks that are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium
  • Mafic: dark colored rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium, poor in silicon
  • Coarse-grained: takes longer to cool, giving mineral crystals more time to grow
  • Fine-grained: cools quickly with little to no crystals
igneous rocks2
Igneous Rocks









igneous rocks3
Igneous Rocks
  • Intrusive Igneous Rocks: magma pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surface
  • Extrusive Rocks: forms when magma erupts onto the Earth’s surface (lava), cools quickly with very small or no crystals formed

igneous rocks4


What is Obsidian?

Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.

Igneous Rocks

Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.

Is this rock Felsic or Mafic?

Is it fine-grained or coarse-grained?

Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive?

Mafic, fine grained, extrusive

sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
  • Sedimentary rock is formed by erosion
  • Sediments are moved from one place to another
  • Sediments are deposited in layers, with the older ones
  • on the bottom
  • The layers become compacted and cemented together

sedimentary rock
Sedimentary Rock
  • Sedimentary Rocks are formed at or near the Earth’s surface
  • No heat and pressure involved
  • Strata – layers of rock
  • Stratification – the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
sedimentary rock1
Sedimentary Rock

Clastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartz

Breccia is a term most often used for clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of large angular fragments (over two millimeters in diameter).

The spaces between the large angular fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement that binds the rock together.

sedimentary rock2
Sedimentary Rock

Chemical sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rock

Rock Saltis a chemical sedimentary rock that forms from the evaporation of ocean or saline lake waters. It is also known by the mineral name "halite". It is rarely found at Earth's surface, except in areas of very arid climate. It is often mined for use in the chemical industry or for use as a winter highway treatment. Some halite is processed for use as a seasoning for food. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

sedimentary rock3
Sedimentary Rock

Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animals

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters.

It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris.

sedimentary rock4
Sedimentary Rock

Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animals

Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. 

Coal is a combustible rock and along with oil and natural gas it is one of the three most important fossil fuels. 

metamorphic rock
Metamorphic Rock
  • Meaning to change shape
  • Changes with temperature
  • and pressure, but remains
  • solid
  • Usually takes place deep in
  • the Earth

metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
  • Contact Metamorphism – heated by nearby magma
  • Increased temperature changes the composition of the rock, minerals are changed into new minerals

Hornfels is a fine-grained non-foliated metamorphic rock produced by contact metamorphism igh&fr=t

metamorphic rocks1
Metamorphic Rocks
  • Regional Metamorphism – pressure builds up in rocks that is deep within the Earth
  • Large pieces of the Earth’s crust collide and the rock is deformed and chemically changed by heat and pressure

metamorphic rock1
Metamorphic Rock
  • Foliated - contain aligned grains of flat minerals

Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made up of granular mineral grains.

It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar minerals.

metamorphic rock2
Metamorphic Rock
  • Non-Foliated – mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bands

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone.

It is composed primarily of calcium carbonate.

metamorphic rock3
Metamorphic Rock
  • Determine if the following rock samples are foliated or non-foliated: