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  1. Cytology I. Introduction A. Definition B. How to Study? 1.Microscopy

  2. a. LightMicroscopy (LM) i. Advantages Magnification Resolution Depth of Field ii. Types Figure 6.3

  3. b. Electron Microscopy (EM) i. Advantages Magnification Resolution Depth of Field ii. Types TEM SEM Figure 6.4

  4. 2.Cell Fractionalization

  5. a. Technique Figure 6.5 b. Advantages i. Whole samples ii. Specificity iii. Starting Point

  6. 3.Cell Staining

  7. a.Vital Staining forContrast

  8. b.Antibody Staining More Specific Contrast

  9. II. Parts of a Cell A. Barriers 1.Cell Walls

  10. a.Prokaryotes

  11. a.Prokaryotes

  12. b.Fungi

  13. c.Plants Figure 5.7

  14. c.Plants

  15. c.Plants Figure 6.28

  16. 2. Cell Membrane

  17. B. Cytosol = Cell Sap

  18. 1.Consistency like thickening Jell-O 2.Molecularmake-up 92% is water, 7% protein, and the rest is gases, salts, lipids, and the like dissolved in the water

  19. Representative Animal Cell Figure 6.9

  20. Representative Plant Cell Figure 6.9

  21. C. Organelles = Cell Machinery 1.Membrane Bound

  22. a.Nucleus = the keeper of the plans Envelope, pores, and nucleolus Figure 6.10

  23. b.Endomembrane System = rER, sER, and Golgi Figure 6.12 Figure 6.13

  24. c.House cleaners -> Lysosome or Peroxisome Figure 6.14

  25. d.Energy Transformers= Chloroplast & Mitochondria Figure 6.17 Figure 6.18

  26. e.Vacuoles i.Animal Types = Food or Contractile ii.Plant Types = Central, Amyloplasts, & Chromoplasts

  27. 2.Non-Membrane Bound

  28. a.Cytoskeleton Figure 6.20

  29. b.Ribosomes c.Centriole Figure 6.11 Figure 6.22

  30. D. Cellular Specializations 1.Microvilli 2.Cilia

  31. Microvilli = short non-moving membrane extensions to increase cell’s overall surface area Cilia = long, moving internal cellular extensions to move something across the cell surface.

  32. 3.Flagella

  33. Flagella move the entire cell Figure 6.24

  34. Flagella move the entire cell Figure 6.25

  35. E. Intercellular Junctions 1.Plants 2.Animals

  36. Figure 6.28 Plants Figure 4.11 Desmosomes Animals Gap Junctions Figure 6.32

  37. F. Extracellular Matrix

  38. Focuson the goal.