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The Dublin Region Core Irish Region
The Dublin Region • Learning Intention Understand how the physical characteristics of the Dublin region can affect the area and its people, both economically and socially. Analyse the interaction between physical, economic and human processes in the region. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the Dublin region and the West of Ireland.
Today’s Learning..... • Identify the region on a map of Ireland. • Draw an outline sketch map of Ireland. • Show the boundary of the Dublin region on this sketch map. • Identify a number of features in the region.
Map • Draw an outline sketch map of Ireland. • Mark and identify the Dublin region. • Locate and mark in; • A river in the region • A mountain range • A main Communication link • The main urban centre
Todays Learning Intention • Review some general characteristics of the Dublin region • Examine the Dublin region’s physical processes • Climate • Soil • Relief • Drainage
Core Region • It is a focal point/nodal point of the main road and rail networks (with two sea ports and an international port). • It is the financial and administrative capital (with the seat of government). • Well-drained lowland area with fertile soils and sheltered harbours. • High population density – 1 million people • In-migration. • Attracts industry due to young, educated workforce. • It is a quickly growing region.
Physical Processes • Climate • Soil • Relief • Drainage
Climate • Cool temperate oceanic/maritime • Warmer and drier than the Western Region • Temperatures: 16 ˚C in the summer and average 5.5˚C in the winter • Rainfall: 800 mm of rainfall annually • Rainfall is lower than elsewhere in country • Rain shadow effect: most precipitation is lost before the Atlantic depressions reach the Dublin region • Rain-bearing south-westerly winds have less impact in this region • Daylight: the region receives 4 hrs sunshine per day • Growing season: is approximately 270 days • Coastal location: less frost in spring • Crops planted in the Dublin region ripen earlier than crops elsewhere
Soil • Brown earths • Deep fertile soil - easily cultivated • High humus content - deciduous forests covered the region • Alluvial deposits- local rivers • Blanket bogs- Dublin Mountains
Market Gardening • North Dublin • Marine, light, sandy soils • Free draining • Ideal for market gardening/horticulture • Growing salad crops in green houses for a nearby urban market
Relief & Drainage • Mainly lowland • Undulating towards the north and west • Good drainage • Main rock type-limestone • Permeable sedimentary rock -allows water to drain freely • Well-drained; River Liffey, Tolka and Dodder
Pair-share.... • Climate type? • Hours of Sunshine? • Temperature range? • Days in the growing season? • Annual rainfall? • Less frost..why? • Main soil type? • Main rock type? • 3 rivers?
Comparison Table • Physical Characteristics
Dublin Region Primary Economic Activities
Agriculture Dublin Region
Agriculture • Dublin region is highly productive and commercial • Area only has about 1,500 farms,1% of the national total • Highly urbanised • Farm incomes 40% higher than the national average • Lowland • Highly mechanised and intensive • E.g. -region produces 11% of the national wheat crop and 15% of the national potato crop
Deep, fertile soils • High yields of tillage crops e.g. wheat and barley • Malting barley is used for the brewing and distilling industry • Protein-rich barley is used for animal feed • Farming output is high due to demands of a nearby large and wealthy urban market • Due to close proximity to Dublin city transport costs are low
Age profile of farmers is lower than in the West • Farmers are well educated – use a market orientated and scientific approach • Farmers specialise in market gardening – migrant workers from Dublin city are used for labour • Cabbage & Onions main crops • Farms are constantly under threat from urban sprawl – encouraging farming to be intensive and profitable
Fishing Dublin Region
Fishing • Main fishing port -Howth • Third largest port in Ireland • Value -€5 million • Dublin Bay prawns- 40% of total shellfish exported
Challenges... • Fishing declining • Overfishing-1960s • 35% of fish landed in Ireland-caught in Dublin ports • 3 % in 2000 • Aquaculture limited • Irish Sea more polluted than Atlantic Ocean
Exam Question • Describe and explain any two physical factors that have influenced the development of agriculture in an Irish region studied by you. (30m)
Comparison Table • Primary Economic Activities
Dublin Region Secondary Economic Activities
Secondary Economic Activities • 25% Ireland’s manufacturing industries • 40% of people employed in the manufacturing sector are in this region • Nodal point: a focus of routeways, rail and air networks • EU and worldwide markets • Direct governmental involvement during the 1990s resulted in 60% of all new industry developed in Dublin region
Low rate of corporate tax of 12.5% for new industries • Modern infrastructure, state-of-the-art telecommunication links and easily accessible industrial estates • Abundant well-educated workforce • 80% of Ireland’s colleges are located in the region
Low age profile- 45% of population under 25 years of age • Industrial output per worker is higher • Manufacturing wages 10% higher than the national average • People of the Dublin region are generally wealthier, this attracts producers of luxury-based goods • Location of the largest financial services sector in the country is in the IFSC in Dublin: businesses can avail of its financial management and business development advice services
Location of Industry • Traditional brewing and distilling, e.g. Guinness, and printing, e.g. Irish Independent • Modern growth industries of internet technology, e.g. Google, and pharmaceutical, e.g. Pfizer • Traditionally located within the city limits because of close proximity to the port and a good supply of local manual labour • Newer industries have tended to locate on the outskirts of Dublin city in close proximity to the M50 & Port Tunnel as it is easily accessible • Close to a large labour pool in the satellite towns • More spacious sites available
Case Study • Wyeth/Pfizer Biopharmaceutical in Clondalkin • 95 %of people employed in the plant have third level qualifications • Employs over 1,000 people • Just off the M50 • Major contributor to scientific research in Ireland • Invested over €640 million in Science Foundation Ireland
Manufacturing is also now widely dispersed • 5 of the world’s top 10 software companies located here (Microsoft/Google) • Dublin region is highly dependent on foreign investment with over 800 of its companies from overseas and 350 of those US-based companies • Dependence on foreign investment is an issue that can worry the Irish government • However….
Irish Times; Sat 23rd Feb 2013 • Since the beginning of this year, some 27 overseas companies have announced new investments in Dublin involving the creation of more than 2,500 jobs across a variant of knowledge intensive sectors. Among these are household names such as PayPal, LinkedIn, Dell, Symantec, Allianz, Pfizer, Google and Accenture. • “Dublin is the engine of growth for foreign direct investment in Ireland,” says IDA chief executive Barry O’Leary. “Internationally, the city continues to become increasingly attractive to overseas investors, with a highly flexible talent pool offering and a strong cluster of world leading companies growing their presence.”
Exam Question • Describe and explain the development of secondary economic activities in an Irish region you have studied. (30m) • Explain two factors which influence either agriculture or industry in one Irish region studied by you. (30m)
Dublin Region Tertiary Economic Activities
Tourism • The region is the main point of entry for visitors to the country • Benefited from the removal of Shannon as a stopover point • 27 per cent of Irish visitors stay in region • Tourism earns €1 billion for the region annually • In 2008 over 4 million tourists visited Dublin • 90 per cent of all scheduled air flights to Ireland land at Dublin airport • A year round business
Main Tourist Attractions • Trinity College- Book of Kells • Christchurch Cathedral • Dublin Castle • Four Courts • Guinness Storehouse • Museums • Croke Park
Transport • Most efficient transport system in the country • Governmental investment under the NDP • Dublin port processes 50% of Irish trade • Dublin airport is the largest in the country and a major employer; it handled 20.9 million passengers in 2009 • Well developed public transport system with Dublin Bus, DART (Dublin Area Rapid Transit) and the LUAS light rail system • Suffers badly from traffic congestion