Intruduction to NIM. Shen Chen. Benefits of NIM. Some of the benefits of NIM are: • Manageability - It allows central localization of software installation images, thus, making backup and administration easier.
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• Manageability - It allows central localization of software installation images, thus, making backup and administration easier.
• Central Administration - Administrators can install remote AIX machines without having to physically attend them.
• Scalability - You can install more than one machine at a time, implement a group strategy of machines and resources, and choose how many machines to install at a time.
• Usability – In lpar environment, The software installation and maintenance is no longer limited by the devices ( CD, tape ).
Installation of software packages and updates can be performed over the network using NIM.
From the NIM master, you can deinstall software that resides on client machines. NIM also gives you the capability of committing and rejecting updates over the network.
NIM can be used to clone the running of rootvg (root volume group) to an alternate disk, or install a mksysb image to an alternate disk.
NIM provides the capability of running shell scripts on client machines for configuration after software has been installed.
Hardware diagnostics can be performed on NIM clients using a diagnostic boot image from a NIM server, rather than booting from a diagnostic tape or CD-ROM.
For maintenance operations, you can boot a NIM client into maintenance mode from the boot image on a NIM server instead of using a bootable tape or CD-ROM.
You can manage resources for diskless and dataless clients from the NIM master.
1. The client boots to IPL-ROM/firmware menus
2. The client sends a bootp request to the server
3. The server only matches it against a MAC address during broadcast installs. If it is not a broadcast install, it matches against a client IP address.
4. The boot image contains a miniature runtime environment (kernel, file systems, libraries, and key programs) to which control is then transferred.
5. Control is eventually passed to a boot script, rc.boot, which configures devices that will be needed for the installation. 6. The client then retrieves the relevant /tftpboot/<clienthostname>.info file with tftp. It copies it to its /etc/niminfo. This file contains a set of environment variables that will define the BOS installation environment.
7. Finally, the BOS installation program is invoked by the boot script to install AIX from images residing on the network.
IPL ROM emulation
Manual interacaction required
In IPL ROM menu
Client issues a bootp request
Control transferred to minature
Boot script invoked
NIM SPOT resource is mounted
BOS Iinstallation script
The boot resource is an internally-managed NIM resource used to indicate that a boot image has been allocated to a client. The boot resource is automatically allocated to clients to support NIM operations requiring a network boot. The boot resource will be automatically deallocated when the operation completes
A script resource represents a file that is a user-defined shell script. Once defined, this type of resource can be used to perform processing on a client as part of a NIM cust or bos_inst operation.
A bosinst_data resource represents a file that contains information for the BOS install program.
An lpp_source resource represents a directory in which software installation images are stored. If the lpp_source contains the minimum set of support images required to install a machine, it is given the simages attribute and can be used for BOS installation (bos_inst) operations. If an lpp_source does not contain enough software to be an simageslpp_source, then it can only be used in NIM cust operations to install software on running machines and SPOTs
A mksysb resource represents a file that is a system backup image created using the mksysb command. This type of resource can be used as the source for the installation of a client. The mksysb image must reside on the hard disk of a machine in the NIM environment in order to be defined as a resource. It cannot be located on a tape or other external media.
The SPOT is a fundamental resource in the NIM environment. It is required to install or initialize all machine configuration types. A SPOT provides a /usr file system for diskless and dataless clients, as well as the network boot support for all clients.
Everything that a machine requires in a /usr file system, such as the AIX kernel, executable commands, libraries, and applications are included in the SPOT. Machine-unique information or user data is usually stored in the other file systems. A SPOT can be located on any standalone machine within the NIM environment, including the master. The SPOT is created, controlled, and maintained from the master, even though the SPOT can be located on another system.
You can convert the /usr file system (/usrSPOT), or you can locate the SPOT elsewhere within the file system.
The /usrSPOT inherits all the optional software that is already installed on the server. All the clients using the /usrSPOT have access to the optional software installed on the server. The non-/usrSPOT can be used to manage a different group of optional software than those that are installed and licensed for the server.
Creating a SPOT by converting the /usr file system has the advantage of being fast and using much less disk space. However, this method does not give you the flexibility to choose which software packages will be included in the SPOT, because all the packages and filesets installed in the /usr file system of the machine serving the SPOT will be included in the SPOT.
The second method, creating a non-/usrSPOT, uses a lot more disk space, but it is more flexible. Initially, only the minimum set of software packages required to support NIM clients is installed in the SPOT, but additional packages and filesets can be installed. Also, it is possible to have multiple SPOTs, all with different additional packages and filesets installed, serving different clients
1. Setup a NIM master.
2. Define NIM clients.
3. Install clients using the smitty nim_bosinst fastpath on the master machine.
This procedure does the following:
Configure the NIM master
Create NIM master resource
Create the lpp_source and SPOT resources.
Create Network for the pri network interface type
( tok, ent, atm, …)
Create boot and nim_script resource
Method A: If the client is not running
Note: If the network that client resides already exists, it pick up the right NIM network and 10 to 12 are not required fields
Enter smit nim_mkres fastpath
Note: Any machine in the NIM environment can be a resource server
• Run Time Environment (rte) BOS install is the runtime image part of lpp_source resource that has been allocated to the client.
• Only the base files are loaded. It is similar to installing from CD.
• It is a slower means of install because device support tailored to each machine must be installed.
• The result is a system that is smaller in terms of required space.
• The BOS run time image results in a client whose /usr file system has all the files that exist in the SPOT.
• Since it is not tailored to individual systems, it is quicker, but the resulting system is larger.
• It supports the overwrite and preservation forms of installation.
• Provides a backup image of an existing machine that can be used as a recovery measure or else to clone one machine onto another. Not only is the BOS installed, but any optional software, paging space information, and other file systems hanging off rootvg are installed; however, an mksysb install only supports the overwrite installation method.Details about this topic
Network covered so far
To define a standalone client: nim_client
2.Platform type ( run bootinfo –p on client )
rspc, rs6k or chrp
To start a client Bos installation: nimjs
1.Define the client as a NIM client first.
2.What BOS installation type ( rtr, spot or mksysb )
3.Push or poll installation
7. Select Boot Options
2. Select Boot Devices
1. Select 1st Boot Device
Select the network interface
1.Things listed in the build check list
2.Additional filesets for fiber card,xvfb, and java
3.Enable no prompts installation.
4.Assume hdisk0 for rootvg.
5.Create /products with 2G space.
6.Increase the default number of logins to 50
7.Set the ulimit values.
8. Install 64-bit kernel if it’s possible
NIM A to Z