What are some similarities & differences between the Korean and Vietnam War
The Korean War (1950-1953) The Cold War Gets “Hot”
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War in Korea A Divided Land • 38th parallel—line dividing Korea into North Korea and South Korea • In North – Japanese surrender to Soviets and becomes Communist • In South – Japanese surrender to Americans and becomes Democratic Standoff at the 38th Parallel • In 1950, North Koreans invade South Korea with Soviet support • South Korea requests UN assistance; 15 nations send troops • Douglas MacArthur (U.S. General famous in WWII) —leads UN forces against North Koreans • North Koreans control most of peninsula when MacArthur attacks • Half of the North’s army surrenders, the rest retreat
War in Korea Ends The Fighting Continues • UN troops push North Koreans almost to Chinese border • Chinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces and capture Seoul (capital of SK) • MacArthur calls for nuclear attack, Truman fires him • In 1953, cease fire signed and border established at 38th parallel. • Demilitarized zone (DMZ) is established • 160 miles long • 2.5 miles wide
War in Korea Ends Aftermath of the War • South Korea establishes democracy, growing economy with U.S. aid • New constitution and Free election since 1987 • North Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry, nuclear weapons (Still a Communist govn’t today) • KW Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPsqKzRvujs
Into the Jungle America’s War in Vietnam Movies: Good Morning, Vietnam Forest Gump Apocalypse Now The Post, Miss Saigon
War Breaks Out in Vietnam(1955-1975) The Road to War • Ho Chi Minh—Vietnamese nationalist, later Communist leader The Fighting Begins • In 1954, French surrender to Vietnamese after major defeat
Domino Theory • Fear that if one country in Southeast Asia fell to autocracy and communism, they would all fall like dominoes.
War Breaks Out in Vietnam Vietnam—A Divided Country • International peace conference at Geneva agrees on a divided Vietnam • Vietnam divided at the 17thparallel • North Vietnam under communist Ho Chi Minh • Ngo Dinh Diem—leads anti-Communist government in South Vietnam (set up by the U.S. & France) • Vietcong—South Vietnamese Communist guerillas fighting against Diem
Ho Chi Minh • Leader of Communist North Vietnam’s: • North Vietnamese Army (NVA) • Viet Minh (VM) • Viet Cong (VC)
Viet Minh • Ho Chi Minh’s communist political party.
Viet Cong • Communist guerilla warrior group led by Ho Chi Minh.
Lyndon B. Johnson • US president who escalated America’s involvement in Vietnam’s civil war.
Search & Destroy • American strategy of finding and killing NVA, VM and VC.
The United States Gets Involved U.S. Troops Enter the Fight • In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong, North Vietnamese • U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly unpopular government • Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China, Soviet Union • U.S turns to bombing forest and farms to destroy enemies • U.S. loses peasant support
Rolling Thunder • Nickname for the “strategic bombing” of North Vietnam. • The US dropped more bombs on Vietnam than Germany in WWII
Ho Chi Minh Trail • Path through Laos and Cambodia to smuggle supplies from Russia and China to Viet Cong in South Vietnam. • Bombed and attacked by US forces to no avail.
Agent Orange • Toxic defoliant (poison) America sprayed on Vietnamese jungles. • Causes cancer, diabetes and birth defects.
Napalm • Jellied gasoline used in firebombs America dropped on Vietnamese villages.
Tet Offensive • Massive attack by NVA, VM and VC forces on the Vietnamese New Year in 1968. • Showed that America was not and could not win the war.
Vietnam After the War • Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam united as Communist nation • About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some settling in U.S., Canada • In 1995, United States normalizes relations with Vietnam
The United States Withdraws • War grows unpopular in U.S.; in 1969, Nixon starts withdrawing troops • Vietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw U.S. from war gradually • Last U.S. troops leave in 1973; South Vietnam overrun in 1975 • Vietnam is still a Communist nation but are looking for other countries to invest in their country (like China)
Postwar Southeast Asia Cambodia in Turmoil • Khmer Rouge—Communist rebels who take control of Cambodia in 1975 (Led by Pol Pot) • They slaughter 2 million people; overthrown by Vietnamese invaders in 1978 • Vietnamese leave in 1989 • In 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy, holds elections with UN help Book: First They Killed My Father Netflix: First They Killed My Father