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Presented by Neels Bothma. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS. 26 January 2006. What is information? Why do you need information Characteristics of information Information and managers Uptake of information in the new economy Key challenges Information systems Information in organisations

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topics for the day
What is information?

Why do you need information

Characteristics of information

Information and managers

Uptake of information in the new economy

Key challenges

Information systems

Information in organisations

Information as a key resource

Nature of managerial work

Types of information systems

Information systems in functional areas

Effectiveness and efficiency

Groupware, telecomms, networks & protocols

System Development Lifecycle

Project Management

System integration

TOPICS FOR THE DAY
topics for the day3
TOPICS FOR THE DAY
  • The Internet
  • Intranets and Extranets
  • E-commerce
  • B2B and B2C e-commerce
  • Search engines and the role of portals
  • E-government
  • What is e-government
  • E-government services
  • Critical e-government factors
  • Human resources for e-gov
  • Implementing e-government
  • Ethics & information
what is information
The word information is derived from Latin informare which means "give form to".

Information can thus be defined as data that has been processed, manipulated and organised in a way suitable for human interpretation and that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it

Information is usually compiled in response to a specific need and often with the purpose of revealing trends or patterns

WHAT IS INFORMATION?
what is data
Data can be defined as “a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn”

Put another way, data are distinct pieces of factual information used as a basis for reasoning; a “given” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture, discussion, or calculation

Data is the raw material – the input – of information

WHAT IS DATA?
what is knowledge
Knowledge is "a fluid mix of experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information.“

Knowledge can further be described as the awareness and understanding of interconnected details, facts, truths or information gained through experience or learning, which, in isolation, are of lesser value.

In other words, knowledge is about what one knows and understands

WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE?
what is knowledge cont
Knowledge can be categorised as either unstructured or structured or explicit or tacit.

What one knows one knows is explicit knowledge.

Knowledge that is unstructured and understood, but not clearly expressed is implicit knowledge.

If the knowledge is organised and easy to share then it is called structured knowledge.

To convert implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, it must be extracted and formatted

WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE…cont?
why do people need information
Decision-making

Problem-solving

Entertainment

Enlightenment

WHY DO PEOPLE NEED INFORMATION?
information politics and power
Politics

Development and control of Information Systems often involves problematic politics

Power

Information affords power which can be problematic

Who owns the system?

Who pays for developing the system?

Who accesses what information?

Who has update privileges?

INFORMATION, POLITICS, AND POWER
slide10
Competition

24x7

Global village

Travel

Television

THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Emergence of the global economy

slide11
THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Transformation of industrial economies

  • Knowledge- and information-based economies in developed world
  • Knowledge: a central productive and strategic asset
  • High margin and tougher to replicate
  • Marked by time-based competition, shorter product life, and turbulent environment
  • Low-knowledge jobs more commodity-like and mostly fled to LDCs
  • Allows some poorer economies to leapfrog in status (e.g., Finland, India and Ireland)
slide12
THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Transformation of industrial economies …cont.

slide13
IT accommodates management in orgs that are:

Flattening

Decentralising

Flexible

Location independent

And striving for:

Low transaction and coordination costs; empowerment; collaborative work and teamwork

THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Transformation of the modern enterprise

slide14
THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Transformation of the modern enterprise …cont.

slide15
Basically, digital firms use digital networks throughout their processes. Digital networks send digital information across them.

For purposes of understanding what it is to be a digital firm, please consider the following definition from Whatis.com

Prior to digital technology, electronic transmission was limited to analog technology, which conveys data as electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude that are added to carrier waves of a given frequency. Broadcast and phone transmission has conventionally used analog technology.

Digital technology is primarily used with new physical communications media, such as satellite and fiber optic transmission. A modem is used to convert the digital information in your computer to analog signals for your phone line and to convert analog phone signals to digital information for your computer.

THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Emergence of the digital firm

slide16
Computers

Networks

Satellites

Telecommunications

Microchip

Nanotechnology

Cellular technology

Internet

THE UPTAKE OF INFORMATION

Convergence of technology

characteristics of useful information
CHARACTERISTICS OF USEFUL INFORMATION

For information to be useful, it must be…

  • Relevant
  • Complete
  • Accurate
  • Current
  • Cost effective

Simple, timely, verifiable, accessible, secure, flexible, reliable

generating information
GENERATING INFORMATION

Raw data are processed in an IS to create final useful information

  • Process: Manipulation of data
  • Computer-based ISs: process data to produce information
information and managers
Systems thinking:

Viewing organisation in terms of sub-organisations or subsystems

A framework for problem solving and decision making

Managers focus on overall goals and operations of business

INFORMATION AND MANAGERS
information and managers cont
Systems thinking (Cont.)

Information Map: data and information flow within an organisation

Information Technology: all technologies that facilitate construction and maintenance of information systems

INFORMATION AND MANAGERS…cont.
the benefits of human computer synergy
THE BENEFITS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER SYNERGY
  • Synergy: combined resources produce output exceeding the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately
  • Translates human thought into efficient processing of large amounts of data
management challenges
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

More Service

Faster

Decisions

Informed

Decisions

Better Service

management challenges another view
Reduced Control over Information Resources

Reduced Budgetary Control

Cost/Benefit Analysis

Scalability

Security

Education

MANAGEMENT CHALLENGESANOTHER VIEW
our perspectives about information technology is changing
Automate

use IT to do same things

“Informate”

use IT to learn and continuously improve

“Strategimate”

use IT to support organisation’s mission and strategy

Integrate

Use IT to bring organisations together

OUR PERSPECTIVES ABOUT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IS CHANGING...
information age reform
Increased efficiency

Decentralisation

Increased accountability

Improved resource management

Marketisation

INFORMATION AGE REFORM
what is an information system
Technical definition:

An organized set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), transmit, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making, control, analysis and visualization in an organization.

WHAT IS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM?
refined objectives of information systems
Must support the strategic direction of organisation

Must allow access to a broad group of users

Must enhance organisational learning

Must do in a cost-effective manner

REFINED OBJECTIVES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
what is a system
System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal

Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal

Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems

Open system: System that interfaces with other systems

WHAT IS A SYSTEM?
we need to exploit information systems to produce results
Process

Redesign

Capabilities

of

Information

Systems

Organizational

Results

WE NEED TO EXPLOIT INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO PRODUCE RESULTS
  • Increased Productivity
  • Improved quality
  • Greater citizen satisfaction
  • Improved decision making
  • Quicker response
  • Better communication and coordination
  • Enhanced goodwill of employees
keys to success
KEYS TO SUCCESS

People

Technology

INFORMATION

Organization

Strategy

capabilities of information systems
Fast and accurate data processing with large-capacity storage and rapid communication between sites

Instantaneous access to information

Means of coordination

Boundary spanning

Support for decision making

CAPABILITIES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
capabilities of information systems cont
Supporting organizational memory and learning

Routinising organisational practice

Differentiation of services

Modeling

Automation

CAPABILITIES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS…cont.
managers and information
Different levels of managers need different types of information for different types of decisions

Increased flexibility of IS allows for changes in organisational structure

However, politics of information is an issue

MANAGERS AND INFORMATION
the traditional organisational pyramid
Many organisations follow a pyramid model

CEO at top

Small group of senior managers

Many more lower-level managers

THE TRADITIONAL ORGANISATIONAL PYRAMID
the traditional organisational pyramid cont
Strategic Management

Decisions affect entire or large parts of the organisation; “what to do” decisions

Aggregate past organisational data and make future predictions

Improve organisational strategy and planning

Tactical Management

Wide-ranging decisions within general directions handed down; “how to do it” decisions

Automation of monitoring and controlling of organisational activities

Improve organisational effectiveness

THE TRADITIONAL ORGANISATIONAL PYRAMID…cont.
the traditional organisational pyramid cont37
Operational Management, Forepersons, Supervisors

Comply with general policies handed down

Automation of routine and repetitive activities

Improve organisational efficiency

Clerical and Shop Floor Workers

No management-level decisions required

THE TRADITIONAL ORGANISATIONAL PYRAMID…cont.
it and the organisational structure
IT AND THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

IT Flattens the Organisation

  • Eliminates middle managers
characteristics of information at different managerial levels
Data Scope

Amount of data from which information is extracted

Time Span

How long a period the data covers

Level of Detail

Degree to which information is specific

CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMATION AT DIFFERENT MANAGERIAL LEVELS
characteristics of information at different managerial levels cont
Source: Internal vs. External

Internal data: collected within the organisation

External data: collected from outside sources

Media, newsletters, government agencies, Internet

CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMATION AT DIFFERENT MANAGERIAL LEVELS …cont.
characteristics of information at different managerial levels cont41
Structured and Unstructured data

Structured data: numbers and facts easily stored and retrieved

Unstructured data: drawn from meetings, conversations, documents, presentations, etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMATION AT DIFFERENT MANAGERIAL LEVELS…cont.
information as a key resource personal dimensions of information
INFORMATION AS A KEY RESOURCEPersonal dimensions of information
  • The three personal dimensions of information include:
    • Time
    • Location
    • Form
information as a key resource organisational dimensions of information45
Strategic management – provides overall direction and guidance

Tactical management – develops the goals and strategies

Operational management – manages and directs the day-to-day operations

Nonmanagement employees – perform daily activities

INFORMATION AS A KEY RESOURCE Organisational dimensions of information
information as a key resource organisational dimensions of information46
The four flows of information include:

Upward – describes the current state of the organisation based on its daily transactions

Downward – consists of the strategies, goals, and directives that originate at one level and are passed to lower levels

INFORMATION AS A KEY RESOURCE Organisational dimensions of information
information as a key resource organisational dimensions of information47
…Information flows continued

Horizontal – between functional business units and work teams.

Outward – information that is communicated to customers, suppliers, distributors, and other partners for the purpose of doing business.

INFORMATION AS A KEY RESOURCE Organisational dimensions of information
information as a key resource organisational dimensions of information48
INFORMATION AS A KEY RESOURCE Organisational dimensions of information
  • Information granularity – refers to the extent of detail within the information
information as a key resource organisational dimensions of information49
What the information describes can include:

Internal information – specific operational aspects of the organization.

External information – the environment surrounding the organization.

Objective information – something that is known.

Subjective information – something that is unknown.

INFORMATION AS A KEY RESOURCE Organisational dimensions of information
the matrix structure
People report to different supervisors, depending on project, product, or location of work

More successful for smaller, entrepreneurial firms

IT supports matrix structure

Easier access to cross-functional information

THE MATRIX STRUCTURE
planning
Planning at different levels

Long-term mission and vision

Strategic goals

Tactical objectives

Most important planning activities

Scheduling

Budgeting

Resource allocation

PLANNING
controlling
CONTROLLING

Control activities by comparing plans to results

decision making
Both planning and control call for decision making

The higher the level of management:

The less routine the manager’s activities

The more open the options

The more decision-making involved

DECISION MAKING
management by exception
MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION

Review only exceptions from expected results that are of a certain size or type to save time

leading managers require these skills and abilities
Vision and creating confidence in others

Encouraging and inspiring subordinates

Initiating activities for efficient and effective work

Creating new techniques to achieve corporate goals

Presenting a role model for desired behavior

Taking responsibility for undesired consequences

Delegating authority

LEADING MANAGERS REQUIRE THESE SKILLS AND ABILITIES
characteristics of effective information
Tabular and Graphical Representation

Certain information better presented graphically

Trends as lines

Distributions as pie charts

Performance comparisons as bar charts

Many people prefer tabular data for complex problem solving

CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE INFORMATION
love hate relationship with information technology
“If the auto industry had kept up with technology like the computer industry has, we would all be driving $25 cars that get 1,000 miles per gallon”.

CEO, Fortune 1000 software fime, spring 1998

LOVE-HATE RELATIONSHIP WITH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
well this is true but
Your car would crash twice a day

Every time they repainted the lines in the road, you have to buy a new car.

The air bag system would say, “Are you sure?” before going off.

When your car died on the freeway for no reason, you would just accept this, restart, and drive on.

Executing a maneuver would cause your car to stop, and you would have to reinstall the engine. For some strange reason, you would accept this, too.

WELL… THIS IS TRUE BUT…
components of an information system
COMPONENTS OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM

1..2..3..4..

Procedures

Software

People

Telecommunications

Information

Systems

Data

Hardware

people as a key resource information and technology literacy
The single most important resource in any organisation is its people.

Technology-literate knowledge worker – a person who knows how and when to apply technology.

PEOPLE AS A KEY RESOURCEInformation and technology literacy
the four stages of data processing
Input: Data are collected and entered into computer

Data processing: Data are manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools

Output: Information is displayed or presented

Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use

THE FOUR STAGES OF DATA PROCESSING
computer equipment for information system
Input devices: introduce data into the IS

Processor: manipulates data through the IS

Output devices: display information

Storage devices: store data and information

COMPUTER EQUIPMENT FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM
types of management information systems
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

Record data and perform basic processing

Cash registers and ATMs

Management Information Systems (MIS)

Recorded transactions and other data produce information for problem solving and decision making

Decision Support Systems (DSS)

Contain models, or formulas, that manipulate data into information

Often answer “what if?” questions

TYPES OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
types of information systems cont
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)

Generate ideas, establish priorities, and reach decisions in group environment

Executive Information Systems (EIS)

Can gather information from vast amounts of data for high-level executives

Highly useful in control and planning

Expert Systems (ES)

Programmed with human expertise

Can help solve problems of unstructured nature

Also referred to as a knowledge worker system (KWS)

TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS…cont.
types of information systems cont71
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Represents local conditions or features

Allows planning, decision-making, and monitoring of local conditions or activities

On-demand Output

Managers can obtain reports tailored to their needs at any time

Office automations system (OAS)

Managers can obtain reports tailored to their needs at any time

TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS…cont.
information systems in functional business areas
Accounting

Record business transactions, produce periodic financial statements, and create reports required by law

Finance

Organise budgets, manage the flow of cash, analyse investments, and make decisions that could reduce interest payments and increase revenues

Marketing

Analyse demand for various products in different regions and population groups

INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN FUNCTIONAL BUSINESS AREAS
information systems in functional business areas cont
Human Resources

Help with record keeping and employee evaluation

Manufacturing

Allocate resources such as personnel, raw material, and time

Control inventory, process customer orders, prepare production schedules, perform quality assurance, and prepare shipping documents

INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN FUNCTIONAL BUSINESS AREAS…cont.
information systems in functional business areas cont75
Service

ISs are often the backbone of service organisations

Retail

Some retail stores (e.g., Wal-Mart, Sears) are now linked to communication networks by satellite

Management can determine which items move quickly and which do not

INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN FUNCTIONAL BUSINESS AREAS…cont.
information systems in different business sectors
New Businesses

ISs have made new products and services possible, such as credit reports and shipment tracking, online businesses

Government

Tax authorities, national insurance and welfare agencies, defense departments, economic organisations, immigration authorities

INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN DIFFERENT BUSINESS SECTORS
effectiveness and efficiency
Information Systems can help companies attain more effective and efficient business processes

Effectiveness

The degree to which a task is accomplished

Efficiency

Determined by the relationship between resources expended and benefits gained in achieving a goal

EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY
enterprise resource planning erp
All business functions served by one system that supports different activities for different departments

Support supply chain management, the series of main and supporting activities from order to delivery

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP)
groupware and collaborative work
GroupWare lets workers in different locations communicate ideas, brainstorm, and work together as if they were in the same place

Document Control

Users can distribute and track electronic documents without working with outdated information

Collaborative Projects

Users can coordinate work on a single document from many different terminals

GROUPWARE ANDCOLLABORATIVE WORK
telecommunications in business
Transmittal of data from one computer to another over a distance

Telecommunications has improved business in three main ways:

Better communication

Higher efficiency

Better distribution of data

TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN BUSINESS
telecommunications in daily use
Cellular phones

SMSs/MMs

Video-conferenceing

Voice mail

Facsimile

Information kiosks

Pay-at-the-Pump

Instant messaging

VoIP - Skype

TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN DAILY USE
bandwidth and media
Communications medium

Physical medium through which data can be communicated

Telephone lines, television cables

Capacity

Speed at which data are communicated

Also called the transmission rate

It is often called “bandwidth”

Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps)

The greater the capacity, the faster the transmission

BANDWIDTH AND MEDIA
bandwidth and media cont87
Bandwidth

Narrowband is low speed

Broadband has greater capacity

Media

A medium is any means by which data can be transmitted

BANDWIDTH AND MEDIA …cont.
networks
LANs (Local Area Networks)

Networks within a building, or within a group of adjacent buildings

WANs (Wide Area Networks)

Networks that cross organisational boundaries or reach outside the company

Value-added networks (VANs/VPNs)

Wireless communication

NETWORKS
protocols
Communication protocols

Rules governing the communication between computers or between computers and other computer-related devices (TCP/IP and HTTP)

Network protocols

Rules governing a network of devices

PROTOCOLS
the wireless revolution
Popular wireless technologies

Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, InfraRed, Wireless. Mircowave, GPS, Edge, 3G

Would you like Wi-Fi with that?

Combining technologies

THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION
dynamic representation
Data presented in real time

Includes moving images representing speed or direction

Changing colors represent rate of change

Use expected to grow

DYNAMIC REPRESENTATION
why develop an information system
An opportunity (proactive)

Potential increase in revenue

Reduction of costs

Gain in competitive advantage

A problem (reactive)

Undesired situation

A directive

An order to take action

WHY DEVELOP AN INFORMATION SYSTEM?
analysis
Investigation

Developers interview managers and perspective users to determine business needs

Three feasibility studies performed

ANALYSIS
slide99
Technical Feasibility Study

Ensures hardware and software exist to build the system

Economic Feasibility Study

Determines resources needed for implementation

Determines if benefits outweigh the costs

ANALYSIS …cont.

slide101
Operational Feasibility Study

Determines if system will be used as intended at its full capacity

Requirements Definition

Specific features and interface requirements of the system defined

ANALYSIS …cont.

design
Translation of user requirements into detailed functions of the system

Input files

Procedures

Output files

User Dialog

Interfaces

DESIGN
design cont105
Software development tools

Flowcharts

Graphical symbols illustrating system

Logical and physical elements

Over 30 symbols for events, hardware, processes and more

DESIGN …cont.
design cont107
Software development tools

Data flow diagram

Describe flow of data in system with only four symbols:

External entities

Processes

Data stores

Data direction

DESIGN …cont.
design cont110
Software development tools

Unified Modeling Language

Graphical standard for visualizing, specifying, and documenting software

Independent of programming language

Describe types of software

Use case, class, interaction, state, activity, and physical components

DESIGN …cont.
design cont112
Construction

Programming

Systems Testing

Checked against system requirements

Attempts to make system fail

DESIGN …cont.
implementation
Training

Conversion

Parallel Conversion

Phased Conversion

Cut Over Conversion

Pilot Conversion

IMPLEMENTATION
prototyping
Systems developed using an iterative process

Purpose is to develop a working model as quickly as possible, which can be tweaked and revised

Significantly shortens systems development backlog

Can increase risk of incompatibility and other unforeseen mishaps

PROTOTYPING
systems integration
Takes a look at the information needs of an entire organisation (or a major division)

Analysts integrate existing systems so that:

Data can flow more easily among business units

Users can access different types of data via a single interface

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION
what is the internet what is the web
The Internet is generally defined as a global network of computer networks

The Web is a way of organising, presenting and accessing the Information on the Internet

WHAT IS THE INTERNET?WHAT IS THE WEB?
growth of the internet
Number of servers

147 million in mid-2003

Number of users

More than 600 million; 10 percent of the world population

GROWTH OF THE INTERNET
how the internet works
Definitions

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Domain Name

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

Top Level Domain (TLD)

HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
internet domains
IP Number

Domain Naming System (DNS)

A domain name is assigned to each IP address

Domain names are registered by one of a group of companies authorized to assign unique names

INTERNET DOMAINS
common internet applications
E-mail (POP & SMTP)

File transfer (FTP)

Usenet newsgroups and Blogs

Instant Messaging

Internet Telephoning (VoIP – Skype)

Web browsers

Search engines

COMMON INTERNET APPLICATIONS
intranets and extranets
Intranet

A within-organisation computer network that uses Internet technologies to communicate

Extranet

Uses Internet technologies to facilitate communication and trade between an organisation and its business partners, such as suppliers (VPN – virtual private network)

INTRANETS AND EXTRANETS
e commerce
Business-to-business and business-to-consumer transactions done electronically via networks

Database management online makes information cheaper to distribute

E-commerce is now synonymous with “doing business on the Internet”

E-COMMERCE
b2b e commerce
Electronic Data Interchange

Market exchanges and auctions

Online Business Alliances

Application and Storage Service Providers

Vortals

B2B E-COMMERCE
slide137
ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE
  • EDI an early example of IT in e-commerce
  • EDI over the internet using secure VPNs is a growing application
b2c e commerce
Advertising & PR

Marketplaces

Brochureware sites

Auctions & reverse auctions

E-tailing

Portals

B2C E-COMMERCE
tips for successful online business transactions
Target the right customer

Own the customer’s total experience

Personalise and customise the service

Shorten the business cycle

Let the customers help themselves

Be proactive and interactive

Engender a feeling of belonging

Create a community

TIPS FOR SUCCESSFUL ONLINE BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
e commerce trends
B2C and B2B growth

to e-business empowerment

B2C

Portal

Self-Service

Web Stores

Integrated

Web Store

Interactive

Marketing

Web Storefront

& e-Catalog

Supply

Chain

Management

Extranets

And Exchanges

Procurement

Automation

B2B

Portal

Customer

Self-Service

E-COMMERCE TRENDS

Short-Term Strategies

High

Long-Term Strategies

e-Business

Empowerment

Customer

Relationship

Management

Business Value

B2C

B2B

Operations Automation

Short-Term Projects

Low

High

Time to Implement

e commerce success factors
Some Key

Factors

for Success

in E-commerce

Selection & Value

Performance & Service

Look & Feel

Advertising & Incentives

Personalisation & Customisatn

Community Relationships

Security & Reliability

E-COMMERCE SUCCESS FACTORS
slide147
GOVERNANCE : AN INFORMATION PERSPECTIVE
  • Representative democracy relies on supposition that best way to make a decision is wider participation for all its citizens having access to relevant information
  • Government is by nature an information intensive organization
  • Information is power and information management is political
how well informed are government executives on it issues
HOW WELL INFORMED ARE GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVES ON IT ISSUES?

86%

CIO’s

CEO’s

45%

General

Managers

36%

Executive Oversight and

Budget Personnel

28%

7%

Legislative Bodies

0 50 100

Source: JFK School of Government, Harvard University

Slide Courtesy, Don Pearson, VP, Government Technology

information technology s role in government
Government largest collector, user, holder and producer of information

“In pursuing the democratic/political process, in managing resources, executing functions, measuring performance and in service delivery, information is the basic ingredient”

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY’S ROLE IN GOVERNMENT
government work is information intensive
Information to support internal management

Information to support public administration and regulation

Information to support public services

Information made publicly available

GOVERNMENT WORK IS INFORMATION-INTENSIVE
what is e government
E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.

Source: World Bank

WHAT IS E-GOVERNMENT?
slide153
E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
  • G2C
  • Income taxes
  • Job search
  • Social security benefits
  • Personal documents
  • Car registration
  • Application for building permission
  • Declaration to the police
  • Public libraries
  • Birth & marriage certificates
  • Enrolment in higher education
  • Announcement of moving
  • Health-related services
  • G2B
  • Social contribution for employees
  • Corporate tax
  • VAT
  • Registration of a new company
  • Submission of statistical data
  • Custom declaration
  • Environmental permits
  • Public procurement
  • G2G
  • Governments establishing regional alliances –for purchasing, warehousing, data sharing
  • Government sharing data among departments
  • State government agencies aggregating data from the municipalities via the web
  • Linking customer front ends with legacy systems
g2c government to citizen
Achievements

Almost all government institutions publish information on Internet

Few institutions provide different forms on Internet

E-Signature legislation

Challenges

Improved management and presentation of information

Interactive communication

Providing e-services for citizens, incl. taxes declaration and payment

G2C: GOVERNMENT TO CITIZEN
g2b government to business
Achievements

Public procurement e-register

Administrative structures e-register

Challenges

Improved information management and presentation

E-market place for public procurements

Providing e-services for companies, incl. tax declaration and payment

G2B: GOVERNMENT TO BUSINESS
g2g government to government
Achievements

Use of Internet for information

Availability of basic infrastructure

Using E-mail for unofficial communication between institutions

Challenges

Internet – official communication environment for the Government

High level of security

Building of legacy system integration

G2G: GOVERNMENT TO GOVERNMENT
e government priorities
Develop Internet-based services for access to publicsector information

Improve transparency

Involve citizens and business in interactive ways

Full exploitation of ICT in administrations including e-signaturesand open source software

E-markets for public sector procurement

E-GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES
internal effectiveness and efficiency
Adoption of business best practices in government operations:

knowledge management

operations research and optimisation

supply chain management, incl.CRM

human resources

automation and integration

document workflow

INTERNAL EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY
e government resulting benefits
Increased transparency=> less corruption

New and better services, incl. Reduced time delays and speed up delivery of services and information

Services delivery independent of place and time – open 24/7

Greater convenience

Revenue growth and/or cost reductions

E-GOVERNMENT RESULTING BENEFITS
critical factors
Presence of political will

Provision of vision, strategy and necessary financial resources

Awareness in the society of the need for e-government development

Education and training, practical skills of the human resource pool for participation in the e-government

Provision of employment for highly qualified IT professionals

Effective feedback

CRITICAL FACTORS

Based on the realities mentioned, the following critical factors for a successful e-government have been defined:

critical factors cont
Creation of IT Infrastructure

Standards for e-governance procedures

Reengineering the existing system

Technology should be used to enable the delivery of results not merely as a substitute to reduce inertia within processes

Technological innovations for public services

Technology should not be used to preserve legacy systems

Focus on results not on process

Governance should be a collaborative approach

Create leadership in Technology ; Security & Privacy

CRITICAL FACTORS…cont.
human resources
The implementation of new technologies requires constant knowledge acquisition. The education level of the public administration employees is comparatively high, but their training for the use of IT does not comply with the requirements of e-government.

It is difficult to attract and keep highly qualified IT and management specialists in the state administration because of the more attractive remuneration terms and clearer career perspectives in the private sector

HUMAN RESOURCES
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Stage 4

Transactions

Complex services

Stage 3

Two-way

interaction

Processing of

form

Stage 2

Interaction

Downloading

of forms

Stage 1

Information

Information

on the Web

IMPLEMENTING E-GOVERNMENT - STAGES

Value

Complexity & Time

government objective internet infrastructure
Invest, develop and exploit sensibly telecommunication network

Reach the average level of Internet capacity in the region

Satisfy quantity and quality of Internet lines

Extend internet access points

ADSL in industrial parks

GOVERNMENT OBJECTIVE: INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE
e government vision of bulgaria
The vision for the e-government in Bulgaria is:

The Government of the Republic of Bulgaria will provide modern and efficient governance, while using the means of contemporary information technologies in order to meet the real needs of citizens and businesses at any time and any place

E-GOVERNMENT VISION OF BULGARIA
e government strategic objectives of bulgaria
The Government of the Republic of Bulgaria has formulated the following strategic objectives with regard to e-government:

To provide, through electronic means, high-quality, efficient and accessible public services to citizens and business;

To expand the technological capabilities of citizens and businesses for participation in the government decision-making process;

To form organisational, communication and information environment for effective and transparent functioning of the public administration in accordance with the principles, standards and best practices of the European Union

E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF BULGARIA
slide167
RELUCTANCE TO EMBRACE E-GOVERNMENT

The major concerns in implementing e-government are:

  • Confidence and reliability of the electronic process
  • Expensive infrastructure required
  • Internal competence-building issues
  • Security of the system and data integrity
  • Legal issues associated with e-commerce
  • Competence in providing support
  • Licenses and cost of development of solutions
  • Digital divide
  • Fear of loosing power base

It is not only about Software and Hardware competence.

It is about working environment and process understanding as a whole.

slide168
GOVERNANCE: IN IT FRAMEWORK
  • Expansion of Internet and electronic commerce, is redefining relationships among various stake holders in the process of Governance.
  • A new model of governance would be based upon the transactions in virtual space, digital economy and dealing with knowledge oriented societies .
  • Electronic Governance is an emerging trend to re-invent the way the Government works.
slide169
BASIC FEATURES OF PRESENT MODEL

OF E-GOVERNANCE

  • Government is simple ; moral; transparent ; efficient.
  • Commodity to deliver is service but delivering agency is Government
  • Legacy problems of existing Government is assumed to be resolved over Technology Backbone
  • Basic orientation of this model is not to reduce the role of Government in Citizen’s life but to serve it more efficiently.
  • Citizen is demanded to orient himself to fit with the way government works.
slide170
C

G

B

E-GOVERNANCE:

PRESENT MODEL

slide171
RE-ORIENTING G TO G : AN

ALTERNATIVE MODEL OF E-GOVERNANCE

  • Emphasis is accorded for self-service. Citizen is more self reliant. He may access “online” government as per the need. But he is in charge of the affairs.
  • Role of governance is limited as facilitator. The internal fabrics of G to G system is having higher intelligence. The regulatory interface with business and revenue activities are more market and community driven
  • It is the government which tries to fit with the life of the Citizen, particularly those who are under-privileged, whereas in previous model it was other way round
slide173
TRANSFORMATION FROM

E- GOVERNMENT TO DIGITAL GOVERNANCE

Core Function

First generation

Second generation

  • Public safety
  • Health
  • Education
  • Economic activity
  • Infrastructure

Choice

Conversation

Digital Governance

Digital Government

Capacity

  • Collaborative infrastructure
  • Transparency
  • Efficient procedure &
  • rules/permission
  • Mobile money
  • Public/Private Partnership

Contribution

Cost

  • Citizens
  • Business
  • NGOs

Commodity

Channels

(Delivery of Citizen

services)

Serving the end user

slide174
E-GOVERNANCE : CHALLENGES FOR RURAL AREAS

The other set of challenges lie in extending the reach of e-governance services to large portions of the population that live in rural areas. These include:

  • Assessment of local needs and customising

e-governance solutions to meet those needs

  • Connectivity
  • Content (local content based on local language)
  • Building human capacities
  • E-commerce
  • Sustainability
slide175
E-GOVERNANCE : CHALLENGES

The key challenges with electronic governance are not technology or internet issues but organisational issues like

  • Redefining rules and procedures
  • Information transparency
  • Legal issues
  • Infrastructure ;Skill and awareness
  • Access to right information
  • Interdepartmental collaboration
  • Tendency to resist the change in work culture
ethical and societal issues the not so bright side
Consumer Privacy

Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals

Employee Privacy

IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESThe not-so-bright side
ethical and societal issues the not so bright side178
Freedom of Speech

Opportunities increase for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, and other intrusions

Prevention may abridge free speech

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESThe not-so-bright side
ethical and societal issues the not so bright side179
IT Professionalism

No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions

Social Inequality

Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESThe not-so-bright side
ethical and societal issues privacy what privacy
What is Privacy?

One’s right to control information about oneself

Not a constitutional right per se; secured by laws or convention

Increasing number of organizations may access information via better IT hardware and software

Business and civil rights advocates dispute degree of privacy vs. utility of information access

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESPrivacy? What privacy?
ethical and societal issues privacy what privacy181
Business Arguments

Necessary to collect basic financial and personal information as cheaply as possible

Consumers benefit eventually from competitive environment augmented by readily available information

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESPrivacy? What privacy?
ethical and societal issues privacy what privacy182
Consumer Arguments

Resent unsolicited mail and telephone calls

Resent being refused credit because of credit bureau mistakes

Frightened by “dossier phenomenon”

Loss of control over information unfair

information gathered for a particular purpose with permission should remain restricted

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESPrivacy? What privacy?
ethical and societal issues privacy what privacy183
Seven Commandments of Personal Data Collection and Maintenance

Purpose: Companies should inform people who provide information of specific, exclusive purpose

Relevance: Companies should record and use only data necessary to fulfill their own purposes

Accuracy: Companies should ensure that their data are accurate

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESPrivacy? What privacy?
ethical and societal issues privacy what privacy184
Currency: Companies should make sure that all data about an individual are current

Security: Companies should limit data access to only those who need to know

Time Limitation: Companies should retain data only for the time period necessary

Scrutiny: Companies should establish procedures to let individuals review their records and correct inaccuracies

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESPrivacy? What privacy?
ethical and societal issues electronic monitoring of employees
The Microchips Are Watching

Video cameras

Software to count keystrokes

Artificial intelligence to monitor cash disbursement and detect fraud

Monitoring e-mail and Web access

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESElectronic monitoring of employees
ethical and societal issues electronic monitoring of employees186
The Employers’ Position

Entitled to know how employees spend time

Believe monitoring is an objective, nondiscriminatory method to gauge output

The Employees’ Position

Deprives them of autonomy and dignity

Increases stress and stress-related illness and injury

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESElectronic monitoring of employees
ethical and societal issues telecommuting pros and cons
Pros

Saves travel cost and time

Decreases pollution

May reduce unemployment

Productivity higher among telecommuters

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESTelecommuting: pros and cons
ethical and societal issues telecommuting pros and cons188
Cons

Employers tend to pressure telecommuters to work harder than workers in the office.

No office to foster new social ties and camaraderie.

May negatively impact some segments of the economy

Restaurants

Downtown business and industries

ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL ISSUESTelecommuting: pros and cons
slide189
Thank You!

Neels Bothma

[email protected]

[email protected]

Cell: 082 8808549

Tel: 012 6676064

Fax: 012-6676065

trends
Power of computers increasing; prices dropping

Increase in programming variety and ingenuity

Internet access faster and more reliable

Internet growth resulting in opportunities

Increasing ratio of computer-literate workforce

Trends
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