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Chapter Framework. Ch. 1: What Does It Mean to be a Leader? Ch. 2: Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships Ch.4: The Leader as an Individual. Definition of Leadership. An influence relationship among leaders and followers. Reasons for Leadership Derailment.

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Chapter Framework

Ch. 1: What Does It Mean to be a Leader?

Ch. 2: Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships

Ch.4: The Leader as an Individual

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Definition of Leadership

An influence relationship among leaders and followers

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Reasons for Leadership Derailment

Insensitive, abrasive, intimidating, bullying style

Being cold, aloof, arrogant

Betraying personal trust

Overly ambitious, self-centered, playing politics

Micro-managing, unable to delegate or build a team

Unable to select good subordinates

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Chapter 2

Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships

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The Trait Approach

Traits: Personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and appearance

Great Man Approach: a perspective that points to inherited traits leaders have that distinguishes them from non-leaders

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Behavior Approaches

Autocratic: a leader who centralizes authority and derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercion

Democratic: a leader who delegates authority, encourages participation, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence

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Consideration: when a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust

Initiating Structure: when a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement

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Employee-centered: a leadership behavior that displays a focus on the human needs of subordinates

Job-centered: leadership behavior in which leaders direct activities toward efficiency, cost cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on work goals

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Discusses objectives; gives employee freedom to use his or her own approach in solving problems and reaching goals

Listens to employee’s suggestions and ideas about how work is done

Treats mistakes as learning opportunities


Gives employee specific directives for how to accomplish tasks and attain goals

Shows little interest in employee’s comments and suggestions

Criticizes or punishes mistakes

Leader Behavior Toward In-Group versus Out-Group Members

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Chapter 4

Leaders as Individuals

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Behavior patterns in response to ideas, objects, and people

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Five Personality Dimensions

Outgoing, energetic, gregarious

Quiet, withdrawn, unassertive




Warm, considerate, good-natured

Aloof, easily irritated




Impulsive, carefree

Responsible, dependable , goal-oriented




Moody, tense, lower self-confidence

Stable, confident

Emotional Stability



Imaginative, curious, open to new ideas

Narrow field of interests, likes the tried-and-true

Openness to Experience



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  • Fundamental beliefsWhat one considers to be important, that impacts attitudes and behavior

  • End Values

    Beliefs about goals worthy of pursuit

  • Instrumental Values

    Beliefs about types of behavior appropriate for reaching goals

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Attitudes about ourselves; includes self-esteem

Does a person have a positive or negative feeling about him/herself

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Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X: people are lazy - not motivated to work / avoid responsibility

Theory Y: people do not inherently dislike work / will work at something they care about