The Rural-Urban Fringe & Green Belts • Aim: To find out what has happened on the Rural-Urban Fringe and why Green Belts have been set up by the government.
What is the rural-urban fringe? • It is the area where the city meets the countryside.
Recently there has been increasing demand for land on the RUF because: • Land is cheaper • There is less traffic congestion and pollution • There is easier access and a better road infrastructure • There is a more pleasant environment with more open space
What do developers want the land for? • Housing developments as urban sprawl continues • Science and business parks • Hyper-markets and superstores • Retail parks & out of town shopping centres • Office developments • Hotels and conference centres • Airport expansion
Shopping Centres Why do they want to locate at the RUF? Cheap land Room to expand Close to motorways Space for parking Leisure facilities can also be provided Local suburban work force
The Trafford Centre, Manchester • Opened 1998. • 5.5mn people, almost 10% of the UK’s total pop live within 45 mins drive. • 2005 – 29.4mn people visited • More than just a shopping centre – 1,600 seat food court, bowling alley, Laser Quest, 20 screen cinema. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5PMwGXCNaU&feature=related
Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages: good motorway links, own bus station, 11,000 free parking spaces, services (banks, PO, travel agents), crèche, weatherproof & air con, disabled facilities. Disadvantages: Congestion & pressure on local roads, artificial atmosphere, big chains, as too expensive for local shops, effected Manchester’s CBD – Marks & Spencer's realised there mistake when they first didn’t chose to locate in the centre. Some stores have left central Manchester.
Housing Why is housing built at the RUF? More housing is needed as more people are living alone and living longer. Land is cheap Peace and quiet Less crime Easy access to motorways Good access to countryside GATM video
Airports • Massive increase in air traffic predicted by 2030. • Low cost carriers such as Easy Jet are increasing their routes and passenger numbers. • Expansion of Bournemouth Airport • Problems: noise & air pollution, more traffic in the area, loss of biodiversity, visual pollution.
What are the negative impacts caused by developing the RUF? • Large areas of countryside may be lost • Buildings may be out of character with existing rural buildings • Villages become suburbanised • Traffic is likely to increase ( both cars and lorries) • There may be some noise or pollution • NIMBYism
How can change at the RUF be managed? Creating ‘Green Belts’ – a zone of countryside around a city where development is controlled.They aim to: • Prevent urban sprawl • Prevent towns merging • Preserve the special character of towns NOT ALL CITIES HAVE GREEN BELTS. Examples include London, Oxford and Bournemouth. However, greenbelts are often leap-frogged and development happens just outside it. 1100 hec lost each year since 97. http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/avdb/news_web/video/9012da68001e538/bb/09012da68001e72d_16x9_bb.asx BBC Video clip – How they have benefited England.
How can development at the RUF be managed? New Towns e.g Stevenage At the end of the second world war towns were created just outside London’s green belt to prevent London spreading and give people a better way of life.
Other Policies In recent years the Government has tried to reduce pressure on the RUF by encouraging development of brownfield sites over greenfield sites, and stopping any more out of town shopping centres from being built.
Greenfield Vs Brownfield • Why build on Brownfield Sites?- many areas have unoccupied houses which could be upgraded- brownfield sites already have utilities such as water and gas pipes- development in urban as opposed to rural areas can help reduce reliance on cars
Greenfield Vs Brownfield • Why build on Greenfield Sites?- cheaper to build on (don't have demolition costs) and lower land-values than in urban areas- generally perceived as better quality of life in the countryside • Also part 1 video the reasons and part 2 the effects
Key vocab • GreenBelts - countryside area around an urban area which are protected from development to restrict urban sprawlBrownfield Site - an area of land previously build on where developments have been demolished and new building can take placeGreenfield Site - an area of countryside never built on before • Out-of-town Shopping Centres - large retail developments found in out-of-town locations close to major transport links. • Rural-urban fringe - where urban areas meet the surrounding countryside • Urban Sprawl - uncontrolled growth on the edge of a settlement
Is Asda coming to Salisbury? • Asda have applied to build a new store on the London road roundabout (by the new gym and Leapfrog) • Why would some people be against this development? • Why would some people be for this development?