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Introduction to A&P . Fall 2012. Vocab development. Paries -wall Pathos- disease Peri - around Pronus - inclined forward Stupinus - lying on the back Venter- belly or abdomen. Bios- life Cardium - heart Dorsum- back Homeo - unchanging -logy- study of

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vocab development
Vocab development
  • Paries-wall
  • Pathos- disease
  • Peri- around
  • Pronus- inclined forward
  • Stupinus- lying on the back
  • Venter- belly or abdomen
  • Bios- life
  • Cardium- heart
  • Dorsum- back
  • Homeo- unchanging
  • -logy- study of
  • Median- situated in the middle
common functions of all living things
Common functions of all living things…
  • responsiveness
      • irritability- organisms respond to environmental changes immediately
      • adaptability- long term adjustments
  • growth
  • reproduction
  • movement
      • internal
      • external
  • metabolism
      • provides energy required for the four things listed above
      • refers to all of the chemical operations under way in the body
anatomy
Anatomy
  • Anatomy- study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts
  • divided into:
      • gross anatomy
      • microscopic anatomy
gross anatomy macroscopic
Gross anatomy (macroscopic)
  • - visible with the unaided eye
        • surface anatomy- study of general form & superficial markings
        • regional anatomy- all of the superficial & internal features in a specific region of the body (head, neck, torso)
        • systemic anatomy- structure of major organ systems
microscopic anatomy
Microscopic anatomy
  • cannot be seen without magnification
  • specialties
      • cytology- analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
      • histology- examination of tissues
        • tissues- groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function
          • organs- tissues combined to perform specific function(s)
physiology
Physiology
  • physiology- study of the function of anatomical structures
      • human physiology
        • cell physiology- study of the functions of living cells
        • special physiology- physiology of specific organs
        • systemic physiology- physiology of all aspects of the function of specific organ systems
        • pathological physiology (pathology)- study of the effect of diseases on organ or system functions
    • All physiological functions are performed by anatomical structures.
levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • 6 levels of organization within the human body
      • Chemical
        • Atoms- smallest stable unit of matter
        • Atoms combine to form molecules
      • Cellular
        • Different molecules can interact to form a larger structures
      • Tissue
        • Similar cells working together to perform a specific function
      • Organ
        • Two or more tissues working together to perform specific functions
      • Organ system
        • Organs interact
      • Organism
        • All of the organ systems of the body work together
organ systems
Organ systems
  • The human body consists of 11 organ systems
      • Integumentary
      • Skeletal
      • Muscular
      • Nervous
      • Endocrine
      • Cardiovascular
      • Lymphoid
      • Respiratory
      • Digestive
      • Urinary
      • Reproductive
integumentary system
Integumentary system
  • Cutaneous membrane
        • Epidermis
        • Dermis
  • Hair follicles
        • Hairs
        • Sebaceous glands
  • Sweat glands
  • Nails
  • Sensory receptors
  • Subcutaneous layer
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Bones, cartilages and joints
  • Axial skeleton
      • Skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, sacrum, cartilages, & ligaments
  • Appendicular skeleton
      • Limbs & supporting bones & ligaments
  • Bone marrow
muscular system
Muscular system
  • Skeletal muscles (700)
      • Axial muscles
      • Appendicular muscles
  • Tendons
nervous system
Nervous system
  • Central nervous system
      • Brain
      • Spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system
endocrine system
Endocrine system
  • Adrenal glands
  • Kidneys
  • Pancreas
  • Gonads
      • Testes
      • Ovaries
  • Pineal gland
  • Pituitary gland
  • Thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid gland
  • Thymus
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system
  • Heart
  • Blood vessels
      • Arteries
      • Capillaries
      • Veins
  • Blood
lymphoid system
Lymphoid system
  • Lymphatic vessels
  • Lymph nodes
  • Spleen
  • Thymus
respiratory system
Respiratory system
  • Nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
      • alveoli
digestive system
Digestive system
  • Salivary glands
  • Pharynx
  • Esophogus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Pancreas
  • Large intestine
urinary system
Urinary system
  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urethra
male reproductive system
Male reproductive system
  • Testes
  • Accessory organs
      • Epididymis
      • Ductus deferens
      • Seminal glands
      • Prostate gland
      • Urethra
  • External genitalia
      • Penis
      • Scrotum
female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
  • Ovaries
  • Uterine tubes
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • External genitalia
      • Clitoris
      • Labia
  • Mammary glands
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis is the tendency toward internal balance.
  • All cells in the body are in contact with blood or some other body fluid, and any change in the composition of the fluid will affect them.
  • Homeostatic regulation- the adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis
homeostatic regulation
Homeostatic regulation
  • Homeostatic regulation usually involves;
      • A receptor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change (stimulus)
      • A control center (integration center) that receives and processes information from the receptor
      • An effector that responds to the commands of the control center
        • Its activity opposes or reinforces that stimulus
  • When homeostatic regulation fails, organ systems begin to malfunction
negative positive feedback
Negative & positive feedback
  • Negative feedback opposes variation to normal
  • Positive feedback exaggerates variation to normal
negative feedback
Negative Feedback
  • Regardless of whether the stimulus rises or falls at the receptor a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation
  • Most homeostatic mechanisms in the body involve negative feedback
positive feedback
Positive feedback
  • The initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus
  • Positive feedback loops are involved in the regulation of a potentially dangerous or stressful process that has to be completed quickly
      • Ex: hypothermia
      • Ex: severe cut
anatomical terms
Anatomical terms
  • Anatomical terms describe:
      • Body regions
      • Anatomical positions & directions
      • Body sections
anatomical landmarks
Anatomical landmarks
  • Anatomical position- hands at the sides with palms facing forward & feet together
      • Supine- lying down face up in anatomical position
      • Prone- lying down face down in anatomical position
anatomical regions
Anatomical regions
  • 4 abdominopelvic quadrants
      • Right upper (RUQ)
      • Right lower (RLQ)
      • Left upper (LUQ)
      • Left lower (LLQ)
      • ***these are formed by two perpendicular lines that intersect at the belly button
abdominopelvic regions
Abdominopelvic regions
  • 9 abdominopelvic regions
      • Right hypochondriac
      • Epigastric (liver, stomach)
      • Left hypochondriac (spleen)
      • Right lumbar
      • Umbilical (large intestine, small intestine, gall bladder)
      • Left lumbar
      • Hypogastric (urinary bladder, appendix)
      • Right inguinal
      • Left inguinal
directional terms
Directional terms
  • Anterior- front; before
  • Ventral- belly side
  • Posterior- back; behind
  • Dorsal- back
  • Cranial or cephalic- head
  • Superior- above; at a higher level
  • Caudal- tail
  • Inferior- below; at a lower level
directional terms cont
Directional terms cont…
  • Medial- toward the body’s longitudinal axis
  • Lateral- away from the body’s longitudinal axis
  • Proximal- toward an attached base
  • Distal- away from an attached base
  • Superficial- at, near, or relatively close to the body surface
  • Deep- farther from the body surface
section planes transverse plane
Section Planes: Transverse Plane
  • Lies at right angles to the long axis of the body
  • Divides the body into superior and inferior portions
sectional planes frontal plane
Sectional Planes: Frontal Plane
  • Aka coronal plane
  • Runs along the long axis of the body
  • Extends laterally
  • Divides body into anterior and posterior positions
sagittal plane
Sagittal plane
  • Runs along the long axis of the body
  • Extends anteriorly and posteriorly
  • Divides the body into left and right portions
body cavities
Body cavities
  • Body cavities protect internal organs and allow them to change shape.
      • 2 essential functions
        • 1. protect delicate organs from accidental shocks and cushion them from the jolting that occurs when we walk, jump, or run
        • 2. permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs
ventral body cavity
Ventral body cavity
  • Contains the organs of the following systems;
      • Respiratory
      • Cardiovascular
      • Digestive
      • Urinary
      • Reproductive
  • Subdivided into:
      • Thoracic cavity
      • Abdominopelvic
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