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In this presentation you will: explore differences between animal and plant cells PowerPoint Presentation
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In this presentation you will: explore differences between animal and plant cells

In this presentation you will: explore differences between animal and plant cells

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In this presentation you will: explore differences between animal and plant cells

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  1. ClassAct SRS enabled. • In this presentation you will: • explore differences between animal and plant cells • explore differences between unicellular and multicellular organisms • explore how the light microscope can be used to view cells

  2. I. Cells: The building blocks of life! A. Houses are built up of rooms; be they bedrooms, basements, hallways or kitchens. In the same way, animals and plants are built up of cells. B. Just like rooms, cells come in all shapes and sizes. If you were to move from cell to cell, you would see differences and similarities in what they contain. C. Every living thing is made up of cells. Cells are the building blocks of life. In this presentation you will explore animal and plant cells and see what they contain. Next >

  3. II. What Cells Do A. Rooms contain items of furniture that have specific functions. For example, chairs allow you to sit down. A cell’s items of ‘furniture’ are called organelles. Just like furniture, organelles have specific functions. • B. Cell organelles work together inside a cell to carry out the seven processes that are essential for life: • excretion • growth • movement • nutrition • reproduction • respiration • sensitivity Next >

  4. Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane III. Animal Cell Organelles A. The cell membrane is a double-layered ‘skin’ around the outside of the cell. The cell membrane separates and protects the cell from its surroundings. It also lets some things pass through it to enter or exit the cell. B. The nucleus controls what the cell does and does not do. It controls the cell’s actions. C. The cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance that holds the organelles in place to stop them bumping into each other. Next >

  5. Nucleus An animal cell Cytoplasm Cell membrane Organelles Found Inside an Animal Cell Next >

  6. Vacuole Cell wall Cytoplasm Cellmembrane Nucleus Chloroplast IV. Plant Cell Organelles A. The cell wall is a hard layer found outside the cell membrane. It keeps the cell in a regular shape. B. The vacuole is a large area that is filled with a fluid mixture of salts and sugars. C. The chloroplast contains a green substance called chlorophyll. This enables the cell to convert energy from the Sun into food. Next >

  7. Vacuole Cell wall Cytoplasm Plant cells Cell membrane Nucleus Chloroplast Organelles Found Inside a Plant Cell Next >

  8. V. Animal and Plant Cells A. Organelles that are common to both plant and animal cells are the: 1. cell membrane 2. nucleus 3. cytoplasm B. Organelles that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells are the: 1. cell wall 2. vacuole 3. chloroplast Next >

  9. Original cell Cell dividing in half Two new cells VI. Where Cells Come From A. Each cell originated from a previous living cell. B. Cells are able to grow and divide in half to produce two new identical cells. Next >

  10. VII. Multi-celled Creatures A. Those cells that need to live and work with other cells their whole life, form part of a multicellularorganism. B. You as a human being are a multicellular organism. You are made up of billions of tiny cells. There are so many cells living together inside us that we are able to see each other. C. However, in order to view any one cell from your billions of body cells, you would need to magnify it using a microscope because it is so tiny. Next >

  11. VIII. One-celled Creatures A. Those cells that can live independently on their own throughout their whole life, are called unicellularorganisms. B. Unicellular organisms are complete tiny living systems. Bacteria are all unicellular organisms. They are so small that they can only be seen using a microscope. Millions of unicellular organisms could fit on one fingernail of your hand. Next >

  12. IX. Using a Microscope A. The microscope was first invented around 400 years ago. It is an important scientific tool as it allows us to magnify things that are too small for us to see with the naked eye. B. As cells are so small, they are not visible without a microscope. A microscope can magnify a cell so that it is big enough to see. C. The microscope also allows you to see some of the organelles inside each cell. Next >

  13. Summary After completing this presentation you should be able to: • show knowledge and understanding of the differences between animal and plant cells • show knowledge and understanding of the differences between unicellular and multicellular organisms • show knowledge and understanding of how the light microscope can be used to view cells End >

  14. ClassAct SRS enabled. • In this presentation you will: • explore how cells are specialized • explore how cellswork together to keep organisms alive

  15. I. Multicelluar organisms. 1. In this presentation, you will explore multicellular organisms. 2. You will also see how cells are designed to carry out particular tasks, how they are organized and how they work together. Next >

  16. A. The Cell 1. Cells are often described as the building blocks of life. 2. This is because all living things are made up of one or more cells. All processes needed for life take place in cells. 3. Cells are microscopic, which means that they are so tiny we cannot see them without a microscope. 4. Plant and animal cells are similar, but not exactly the same. Next >

  17. Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane Vacuole Cell wall Chloroplast B. Plant and Animal Cells 1. There are some features that plant and animal cells both have, but some that are only found in plants. 2. Plant and animal cells both have: a. a cell membrane – to control what goes in and out the cell b. cytoplasm– where chemical reactions take place c. anucleus – to control what happens in the cell 3. Features only found in plant cells are: a. chloroplasts– to make food b. a vacuole – to keep the cell firm c. a cell wall – to support the cell Next >

  18. II. Unicellular Organisms A. Some organisms are made up of just one cell throughout theirwhole life cycle. They are called unicellular or single-celled organisms. B. These single cells are able to make all the substances it needs to carry out all the functions of life. They are also able to divide and copy themselves very quickly, sometimes more than once in an hour. 1. Bacteriaand Amoeba are examples of unicellular organisms. Next >

  19. III. MulticellularOrganisms A. For larger, complex organisms such as plants and animals, cells working alone are not much use. A single cell would never be able to carry out all the jobs to needed to keep us humans alive. B. This is why we are made up of so many cells. An organism that is made up of more than one cell is called a multicellularorganism. 1. Humans are made up of billions of cells. We do not need a microscope to see other humans. Next >

  20. IV. Cell Specialization A. The cells that make up a multicellular organism are not all the same. B. For example, the cells of the skin are not the same as those that make up our heart, and the cells of a plant root are not the same as the cells of a plant leaf. C. The different cells of a multicellular organism have very different jobs to do. D. The size and shape of a cell depends on its job or function. We call this cell specialization. The cells are known as specialized cells. Next >

  21. Chloroplasts V. Specialized Plant Cells A. Some examples of specialized cells in plants are: 1. Root hair cells that have a large surface area to absorb water and nutrients from the soil. 2. Leaf cells that have a large surface area to absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide. They also contain lots of chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is needed to make the plant's food via a process called photosynthesis. Next >

  22. VI. Specialized Animal Cells A. Some examples of specialized cells in animals are: 1. Male reproductive cells (sperm) that are designed to swim to, and join with, an egg from a female. 2. Female reproductive cells (egg) that are designed to join with the sperm and provide food for the resulting cell. 3. Red blood cells that have a large surface area to absorb oxygen. They contain a chemical called hemoglobin that holds the oxygen. 4. Nerve cells that are long, like wires, so they can carry electrical messages around the body. Next >

  23. VII. Organization A. Since there are so many cells in a multicellular organism it is important that they work together. B. They work together like a team to share out the jobs that need doing to support the organism and keep it alive. C. Think of a workplace. Individual people group together to form a team, groups of teams make a department, and groups of departments form a company. If the people do not work together, the company may not survive. Next >

  24. Heart (organ) VIII. Levels of Organization A. In multicellular organisms, there are different levels of organization. Cells group together to form tissue, groups of tissue makes an organ, and groups of organs make an organ system. We call this levels of organization. Muscle cells B. Here’s an example: 1. In a human, muscle cells join together to make muscle tissue. Muscle tissue grouped together can make the heart (an organ). The heart works with blood vessels to make an organ system. This organ system transports blood all around our body and is called the circulatory system. Next >

  25. Summary After completing this presentation you should be able to: • Show knowledge and understanding of unicellular and multicellular organisms • Show knowledge and understanding of specialization of plant and animal cells • Show knowledge and understanding of how cells are organized within multicellular organisms End >

  26. ClassAct SRS enabled. • In this presentation you will: • explore life processes • explore how different types of organisms carry out life processes

  27. I. Characteristics of Living things A. You can tell if an object is alive or dead. You can also tell if an object has been alive in the past, or if it has never been alive at all. B. This is because all living things have certain characteristics in common. C. In this presentation you will explore the main characteristics that living organisms share. You will also explore some of the differences between living organisms. Next >

  28. II. Cells A. All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the basic unit of life. B. Large organisms, such as plants and animals, are made up of lots of cells, whereas small organisms such as bacteria are made up of just one cell. C. However, dead organisms are also made up of cells. D. So, what makes the cells of a living organism different to the cells of a dead organism? Next >

  29. III. Life Processes A. Cells that are alive carry out life processes. Cells that are dead do not. Life processes are essential for life. B. The life processes are: 1. movement 2. respiration (turning food into energy) 3. sensitivity 4. growth 5. reproduction 6. excretion (getting rid of waste) 7. nutrition C. For an organism to be alive, it must carry out all seven processes. We will see how different organisms carry out these processes. Next >

  30. IV. Single-celled Organisms A. Single-celled organisms are very small, and include organisms like bacteria. Most organisms on Earth are single-celled. These organisms are known as unicellular organisms. B. They are made up of one cell that can carry out all of the seven life processes efficiently enough so that it can live independently. Next >

  31. Reproductive cells Leaves Roots V. Multi-celled Organisms A. Multicellularorganisms consist of more than one cell. The size of these organisms range from very small to very large. B. These organisms have specialized cells that carry out specific functions. C. For example, plants have root cells that collect nutrients, leaf cells that absorb light, and reproductive cells that reproduce. The cells depend on each other and work like a team to keep the organism alive. D. Every cell must carry out each life process so the organism can survive. The organism must carry out each life process on a larger scale so both its cells, and its species, can survive. Next >

  32. VI. Movement A. Living things must be able to move, even if it is just a little bit. For example, organisms may need to move away from danger, or move toward light. B. Some organisms, like animals can easily move their whole bodies by walking (locomotion). C. Other organisms, like plants, cannot get up and walk about. However, they can move slowly. For example, they turn their leaves toward light. Next >

  33. VII. Respiration A. Respiration is the breakdown of molecules to produce energy. B. All living things must respire to provide them with the energy they need to carry out the other life processes. 1. For example, animals and plants use oxygen from the air to help turn their food into energy. Next >

  34. VIII. Sensitivity A. Living things exist in an environment. The conditions of environments can constantly change. B. Living organisms must sense such changes, so they can react accordingly. 1. For example, plants can sense light and grow toward it. Animals can sense danger and they can run away from it. Next >

  35. Original cell Cell dividing in half Two new cells IX. Growth A. Living organisms grow. The cells of organisms grow and divide into smaller cells which then grow and divide themselves. B. This cycle of cell growth constantly reproduces new cells, to increase cell number and to replace old dead cells. 1. For example, young animals need to grow into adults from small babies, and the small seeds of plants need to grow into adult plants. Next >

  36. X. Reproduction A. All living things eventually die as they do not last forever. For a species to remain in existence, its members must reproduce. B. Animals reproduce by creating young which can grow and, in time, reproduce. C. Plants can reproduce by creating seeds that can grow to form new plants which, given time, can also reproduce. Next >

  37. XI. Excretion A. Excretion is the removal of waste substances from the body. B. All organisms need to remove waste substances produced during respiration. Animals also need to remove substances that are left over from the things they eat and drink. C. Organisms such as animals get rid of their waste via breathing out, feces, urine and sweat. D. Plants get rid of their waste products via transpiration and diffusion. Next >

  38. XII. Nutrition A. Nutrition is the way living organisms obtain the food they need for their other life processes. B. Plants make their own food via sunlight, and the raw materials from the ground in which they live, by a process known as photosynthesis. C. Animals eat and digest other organisms to obtain the nutrients that they need. Next >

  39. Summary After completing this presentation you should be able to: • show knowledge and understanding of the different processes that are needed for life • show knowledge and understanding of how different types of organisms carry out life processes End >

  40. ClassAct SRS enabled. • In this presentation you will: • explore life processes • explore how different types of organisms carry out life processes

  41. ClassAct SRS enabled. • In this presentation you will: • explore how organisms are classified • explore how dichotomous keys can be used to sort and classify things.

  42. I. Classification A. Over 1.5 million species of organisms have been discovered on Earth. It is estimated that there are many more species yet to be discovered. B. For thousands of years humans have been classifying these species in order to understand them better. C. In this presentation you will explore some of the ways that organisms can be classified. D. You will also explore dichotomous keys and see how they can be used to sort things into groups. Next >

  43. II. Tree of Life A. Scientists estimate that life first arose on this planet 4.8 billion years ago. B. This illustration shows how all life on Earth could have evolved from a common ancestor. C. Today, organisms are generally classified according to their evolutionary and biological relationships. Next >

  44. III. Classification Systems A. Classification is concerned with sorting things into groups depending on the internal and external features that those things have in common. B. There are a number of different classification systems that are recognized today. These systems are constantly being updated as: 1. new species are discovered 2. new technologies become available that allow the similarities, and differences, between species to be viewed in different ways Next >

  45. IV. The Six Kingdoms A. One classification system is the six kingdom classification system. In this system, all the organisms on the planet are divided into the following kingdoms depending on their characteristics. 1. Plantae(plants) 2. Animalia(animals) 3. Fungi(mushrooms and molds) 4. Protista(microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, plants or fungi) 5. Eubacteria(bacteria) 6. Archaerbacteria(ancient bacteria that live in extremely hostile conditions) Next >

  46. Protozoa Bacteria Fungi Archaerbacteria Fungi Eubacteria Protista Non vascular plants Flowering Monocotyledons Liverworts Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Plantae Blue-green algae Filamentous algae Dicotyledons Mosses Plantae Vascular plants Ferns Non flowering Gymnosperms Mollusks Crustaceans Invertebrates Segmented worms Roundworms Myriapods Flatworms Animalia Coelenterates Arachnids Echinoderms Arthropods Insects Fish Birds Reptiles Vertebrates Amphibians Mammals The Six Kindoms You can see how the different types of organisms are separated as a result of their different characteristics. In this presentation we will explore the plant and animal kingdoms. Next >

  47. Monocotyledons Flowering Invertebrates Animalia Dicotyledons Ferns Non flowering Vertebrates Gymnosperms V. Separating Plants and Animals A. The plant kingdom contains mostly multicellular organisms that can make their own food. B. The animal kingdom contains multicellular organisms that need to consume other organisms for their food. C. The kingdoms are populated according to the characteristics of the organisms and how they are related to each other. D. The more closely organisms are related, the more closely they are positioned in the kingdom. Next >

  48. Non vascular plants Flowering Monocotyledons Liverworts Dicotyledons Mosses Plantae Vascular plants Ferns Non flowering Gymnosperms VI. Kingdom Plantae A. This kingdom consists of organisms that satisfy their nutrition needs via photosynthesis. Plants can be generally divided in the following way: Next >

  49. Mollusks Crustaceans Invertebrates Segmented worms Roundworms Myriapods Flatworms Coelenterates Arachnids Animalia Echinoderms Arthropods Insects Fish Birds Reptiles Vertebrates Amphibians Mammals VII. Kingdom Animalia A. This kingdom consists of organisms that satisfy their nutrition needs from consuming other organisms. Animals can be generally divided in the following way: Next >

  50. More specific VIII. Levels of Organization A. There are six levels of organization in each kingdom: Phylum 1. Phylum Class 2. Class 3. Order Order 4. Family Family 5. Genus 6. Species Genus B. Species are the most specific group. A species of organisms have the most in common with each other. They can produce fertile offspring. Species Next >