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General Psychology (PY110). Chapter 2 Neuroscience . Neuroscience and Behavior. All sensory organs – Receptors Muscles and Glands – Effectors Neurons – Communication channel. The Structure of a Neuron. How Neurons Communicate. Communication within a neuron is electrical.

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slide1

General Psychology (PY110)

Chapter 2

Neuroscience

neuroscience and behavior
Neuroscience and Behavior
  • All sensory organs – Receptors
  • Muscles and Glands – Effectors
  • Neurons – Communication channel
how neurons communicate
How Neurons Communicate

Communication withina neuron iselectrical

Communication between neuronsischemical

types of neurons
Types of Neurons
  • Interneurons exist only in the central nervous system
  • Sensory neurons carry information to the central nervous system from sensory receptors in the eyes, muscles, and glands
  • Motor neurons carry movement commands from the central nervous system to the rest of the body
neurotransmitters drugs and poisons
Neurotransmitters, Drugs, and Poisons

Key terms:

Agonists

Antagonists

Drugs and poisons that increase the activity of one or more neurotransmitters

Drugs and poisons that decrease the activity of one or more neurotransmitters

neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters

1. Acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in both learning and memory and muscle movement

2. Dopmaine impacts our arousal and mood states, thought processes, and physical movement

3. Serotonin and norepinephrine are neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood, and play a major role in mood disorders such as depression

4. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system; glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter

5. Endorphins are a group of neurotransmitters that are involved in pain perception and relief

dopamine
Dopamine
  • Low levels are associated with Parkinson’s disease, and excessively high levels are associated with schizophrenia
  • L-Dopa is an agonist that increases production of dopamine
  • Anti-psychotic drugs are antagonists that block the receptor sites for dopamine so that this neurotransmitter cannot send its messages
  • Amphetamine acts as an agonist by stimulating the release of dopamine from axon terminals
  • Cocaine is an agonist that blocks the re-uptake of dopamine
the central nervous system
The Central Nervous System

Consists of the spinal cord and the brain

  • The spinal cord has two functions
    • Conduit for incoming sensory data and outgoing movement commands
    • Provides for spinal reflexes, which are simple automatic actions not involving the brain
  • The brain is the control center for the entire nervous system
the peripheral nervous system
The Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of two parts:

  • The somatic (or skeletal) nervous system carries sensory input from receptors to the CNS and relays commands from the CNS to the skeletal muscles to control their movement
  • The autonomic nervous system regulates our internal environment and consists of two parts
    • The sympathetic nervous system is in control when we are very aroused and prepares us for defensive action (such as running away or fighting)
    • The parasympathetic nervous system is in control when the aroused state ends to return our body to its normal resting state
components of emotion
Components of Emotion

An emotion is a complex psychological state that involves three components:

Physical

Behavioral

Cognitive

A physiological state of arousal triggered by the autonomic nervous system

An outward expression including facial expressions, movements and gestures

An appraisal of the situation to determine which emotion we are experiencing and how intensely

emotion theory comparison

Emotion Theory Comparison

  • James-Lange Theory
  • Cannon-Bard Theory
  • Schachter-Singer Theory

Stimulus:

Sight of bear

Physiological Arousal

Emotional Response (Fear)

Emotional Response (Fear)

Stimulus:

Sight of bear

Physiological Arousal

Stimulus:

Sight of bear

Physiological Arousal

Cognitive Appraisal

Emotional Response (Fear)

the case of phineas gage
The Case of Phineas Gage
  • Phineas Gage was railroad worker who survived when a metal tamping iron flew through his left cheek and head, exiting through his frontal lobes
  • He became irresponsible, impulsive, disorderly, indecisive, and cursed, leading neuroscientists to think the frontal lobes are important in such behaviors
language
Language

Fluent

speech

production

Comprehension

of speech & reading

what we know
What we know…
  • Left hemisphere
    • Language
    • Math and logic skills
    • More analytical, analyzing wholes intopieces
  • Right hemisphere
    • Spatial perception
    • Solving spatialproblems
    • Drawing
    • Face recognition
  • A band of neurons called the Corpus Callosum joins the two hemispheres
    • Allows communication and coordinates functions
five stages of sleep
Five Stages of Sleep

Brain wave taken by Electroencephalogram (EEG)

slide22

Sleep

Cycles

  • Cycles last about 90 minutes.
  • 4-6 cycles each night
nature of sleep dreams
Nature of Sleep & Dreams
  • 2 Types of Sleep – REM and Non-REM
  • Non-REM = Quantity REM = Quality
  • REM Sleep reduced by alcohol and sleeping pills
  • Sleep Deprivation (or Dream Deprivation)
    • Moderate – Sleep rebound
    • Severe – depression, impaired memory, decreased immune response
  • Circadian cycles – Biological clock