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Asia and Africa in the 20 th Century. Mr. Wilson – AP World History – Wren H.S. Africa and Asia in 1900. Africa & Asia: The Road to Independence. Road to Independence. Pre-World War I Nationalism Indian National Congress & Muslim League Egyptian Nationalism Dinshawai Incident

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Asia and Africa in the 20 th Century

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asia and africa in the 20 th century

Asia and Africa in the 20th Century

Mr. Wilson – AP World History – Wren H.S.

road to independence
Road to Independence
  • Pre-World War I
    • Nationalism
      • Indian National Congress & Muslim League
      • Egyptian Nationalism
        • Dinshawai Incident
      • “Save the King” movement in Vietnam
    • Violence
      • Boer Wars
      • Islamic Fundamentalism
        • the Mahdi in Egypt
      • Guerilla Warfare in Vietnam

Top: The members of the 1st Indian National CongressBottom: Muhammad Ahmad “the Mahdi”

road to independence world war i
Road to Independence: World War I
  • Promises of Self-Determination
    • India wanted self-government
      • Rowlatt Act (1920)
    • Arabs wanted independence
      • Mandate System (right)
      • Balfour Declaration
  • Locals fill colonial posts
  • Economic strain of the war
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • Increased nationalism
      • Gandhi and satyagraha
      • Ho Chi Minh
      • May Fourth Movement
road to independence interwar years
Road to Independence: Interwar Years
  • Egypt
    • Continued nationalism
    • England withdrawal began 1922
      • Left khedival regime in power
  • South Africa
    • Self-government granted in 1910
    • Part of commonwealth in 1933
  • India
    • The Great Depression
      • Anti-government protests
        • Gandhi’s Salt March (1931)
    • Government of India Act (1935)
road to independence world war ii
Road to Independence: World War II
  • Cost of Empire
    • Need to rebuild home country
  • Declining support for colonialism
    • Atlantic Charter (1941)
    • Soviets “loathe” colonialism
      • Except for Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Armenia, etc.
  • Japan conquers colonies in East Asia

The Atlantic Charter was drafted by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt (left) and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (right). In it they voiced support for "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live."

post world war ii independence
Post-World War II Independence
  • Three routes to independence
    • Negotiated Independence
      • Parts of Asia and Africa gained their independence without much bloodshed
        • India & Pakistan
        • Japan & Korea
        • Ghana & the Congo
    • Incomplete Independence
      • Places with sizeable settler populations or Cold War importance struggled to gain their independence
        • South Africa, Kenya, & Algeria
        • Vietnam
    • Civil War
      • China resumed civil war between nationalists and communists
negotiated independence india
Negotiated Independence: India
  • India & Pakistan gained their independence August 1947
    • Communal violence ensued as millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India
    • Violence broke out over Kashmir
  • Jawaharlal Nehru (right) became the first prime minister of India
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first prime minister of Pakistan
negotiated independence japan
Negotiated Independence: Japan
  • United States occupied Japan from August 1945-1952
    • Feared Soviets would influence Japan
    • Japanese cooperated with the U.S.
  • Political and social changes
    • Military disbanded and military spending limited
    • Shintoism was abolished as state religion
    • New parliamentary system with constitution
    • Women received the right to vote
    • Large estates were divided and redistributed to farmers
    • Zaibatsu combines were temporarily dissolved
negotiated independence korea et al
Negotiated Independence: Korea, et al.
  • Korea was divided at 38th parallel
    • Korean War resulted in a Soviet backed North Korea and U.S. backed South Korea
  • Hong Kong remained a British colony until 1997
  • Singapore gained independence from Britain in 1959
  • Chiang Kai-shek established the Republic of China on Taiwan
negotiated independence africa
Negotiated Independence: Africa
  • African “nationalism”
    • Negritude movement
    • Pan-Africanism
  • World War II
    • West built factories in Africa
    • Africans migrated to cities looking for work
  • Kwame Nkrumah gained independence for Ghana in 1957
    • First successful mass movement
  • 1960 is known as the “Year of Africa”
incomplete independence south africa
Incomplete Independence: South Africa
  • Gained home rule in 1910
    • Had over 4 million white residents
    • Denied civil rights to black population
  • Whites institute apartheid in 1948
    • Reserved best jobs for whites
    • Reserved 87% of land for whites
    • Black Africans & Indians couldn’t vote
  • ANC led mass protests against apartheid
    • Sharpeville Massacre (1960)
    • ANC leader Nelson Mandela arrested and sentenced to life in prison in 1964
incomplete independence south africa1
Black protests of apartheid increased in the 1980s

Bishop Desmond Tutu encouraged international embargo of South Africa

Gained worldwide attention due to TV

End of Apartheid

Nelson Mandela freed in 1990

Apartheid laws repealed in 1990-1991

First free election occurred in 1994

New constitution passed in 1996

Includes U.S. style Bill of Rights

Incomplete Independence: South Africa
incomplete independence kenya
Incomplete Independence: Kenya
  • White coffee planters felt ethnic Kenyans were not ready for self-government
    • Called rebels the Mau Mau
  • Violence erupted in the 1950s
    • British captured native fighters and resettled them in camps
      • Jomo Kenyatta & other leaders were imprisoned for eight years
  • Kenyatta negotiated Kenyan independence in 1961
    • Elected president in 1964
incomplete independence algeria
Incomplete Independence: Algeria
  • Algeria was viewed as an extension of France
    • One million settlers created a maintain at all costs attitude
    • France dependent upon Algerian oil & gas fields and vineyards
  • National Liberation Front (FLN) made up of Berbers and Arabs demanded independence
  • Settlers and rich Arabs and Berbers continue fight against the FLN
    • Form the Secret Army Organization (OAS)
  • After 8 years of violence and thousand of casualties, France eventually negotiated independence in 1962
    • Millions of French settlers and wealthy Arabs and Berbers emigrated to France
incomplete independence vietnam
Incomplete Independence: Vietnam
  • World War II
    • Viet Minh (communists) successfully resisted Japanese occupation
      • Provided assistance during famine
      • Instituted communist reforms
    • Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent from France in 1945
  • French refused to recognize independence and tried to reoccupy the region
    • Defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954

Leaders of the Viet Minh: Vo Nguyen Giap (left) and Ho Chi Minh (right)

vietnam war 1954 1973
Vietnam War (1954-1973)
  • France leaves after being defeated at Dien Bien Phu
    • Ho Chi Minh agrees to divide Vietnam into two parts
      • Communists dominated northern Vietnam
    • Elections were promised within two years to decide who should rule a united Vietnam
  • U.S. sends in “advisors” to help South Vietnam in 1954
    • U.S. viewed conflict as part of the Cold War
  • U.S. supported anti-communist dictator Ngo Dinh Diem
    • Diem attempted to suppress communists in South Vietnam
    • Viet Minh (Viet Cong) sent military supplies to aid southern communists (National Liberation Front)
vietnam war 1954 19731
Vietnam War (1954-1973)
  • Richard Nixon continued to escalate U.S. presence in Vietnam
    • Resort to carpet bombing & chemical warfare
    • Some historian argue the bombing of Cambodia triggered the Khmer Rouge
      • Pol Pot killed approximately 20% of the Cambodian population
  • U.S. ended involvement in 1973
  • Communists unite Vietnam in 1975

Some Buddhist monks expressed opposition to the war by practicing self-immolation. This monk, Thich Quang Duc is a national hero in Vietnam

asia africa after independence
Asia & Africa After Independence
  • Challenges facing independent states
    • Political Instability
      • Most countries end up one-party states or military dictatorships
    • The Cold War
    • Colonial Legacy
    • The Population “Bomb”
    • Parasitic Cities & Endangered ecosystems
    • Women’s Subordination
    • Neocolonialism
military dictatorships
Military Dictatorships
  • Why military dictatorships?
    • Military is more resistant to religious and ethnic rivalries
      • Military used to suppress ethnic and religious tensions
    • A monopoly of force
    • A degree of technical training
    • Most are staunchly anticommunist
  • Military dictatorships often bring political stability but economic development is rare

Clockwise from top left: Idi Amin of Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko of the Congo, Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya

military dictatorship egypt
Military Dictatorship: Egypt
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser
    • Seized power in 1952
      • Embarrassed by defeat in Arab-Israeli War of 1948
    • Instituted a series of reforms
      • Land reform, education, subsidized food costs, emphasized industrial growth
      • Reforms foiled by corruption, lack of foreign investment, & population growth
    • Supported Pan-Arabism
      • Opposed Israel
    • Built the Aswan Dam
one party state ghana
One-Party State: Ghana
  • Kwame Nkrumah
    • Originally committed to social & economic reform
    • Reforms hindered by lack of education, industrialization, and decline of cocoa prices
    • Leftist (socialist) leanings won support from Soviets & alienated Western investors
    • Ruled as a authoritarian dictator
      • Crushed political opposition, staged “events”, manipulated history, etc.
democracy botswana
Democracy: Botswana
  • Democratic since gaining independence in 1966
  • Stable economy based upon diamonds, tourism, & manufacturing
    • Per capita GDP: $12,500
    • World average: $7,400
  • Predominantly Christian
  • AIDS/HIV rate was 24% in 2006
democracy india
Democracy: India
  • Advantages
    • Military defends secular democracy
    • Came to independence with a larger industrial and scientific center, better communication systems, and a larger, more skilled middle class
  • Disadvantages
    • Population growth, poverty, unemployment, religious & ethnic diversity, and natural disasters
    • Military conflicts with Pakistan over Kashmir
  • Early Government
    • Reforms to help lower castes and women
    • Spearheaded the nonalignment movement
democracy india1
Democracy: India
  • Indira Gandhi
    • Tried to limit freedom of press
    • Proposed involuntary sterilization to slow population growth
  • Indian Economy
    • Mix of private and state initiatives
    • Green Revolution
      • Introduced improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation
      • Credited for averting a global famine
  • Growing middle class
  • World’s largest film industry
the cold war
The Cold War
  • U.S. and Soviet Union attempted to influence new states
  • Bandung Conference 1955
    • Conference participants claimed to be “non-aligned”
      • Nasser and Nkrumah attended the conference
  • Many independence movements received help from the Soviet Union or Cuba
    • United States often interfered in these nations
      • The Congo and the Cold War
      • Nkrumah overthrown by C.I.A. in 1966
  • Proxy wars fueled ethnic tension & genocide
    • Hutus in Rwanda massacred 750,000 ethnic Tutsis in 1995
colonial legacy
Colonial Legacy
  • All new nations were “artificial nations”
    • European colonial boundaries rarely took into account the ethnicities, interests, and histories of the people
    • European control often intensified existing divisions
      • Minority Tutsi were favored over the majority Hutu in Rwanda
  • Europe often “cut-and-run” at the end of colonial rule
    • Often led to ethnic strife in new nations
      • India, Nigeria, the Congo, Palestine, etc.
      • Pakistan quickly divided into two nations – Pakistan & Bangladesh
    • New rulers create a national identity
      • Separatist movements emerged and led to civil war in Morocco, India, the Sudan, & Nigeria
population bomb
Population Bomb
  • Why?
    • Introduction of new food crops (Columbian Exchange), colonialism ended local warfare, railroads cut down on famine, improved hygiene & medicine, resistance to birth control, declining infant mortality rates
parasitic cities
Parasitic Cities
  • Massive post-independence urbanization occurred in most countries
    • No expanding industrial centers meant few jobs & low wages
    • Urban poor could become politically volatile
    • Little or no urban planning
      • Slum areas with no electricity, running water, or basic sewage
    • Cities are not productive thus “parasitic”
  • Puts pressure on rural areas
    • Draw food and resources from depleted countryside
    • Contributes to soil depletion, deforestation, desertification, etc.
women s subordination
Women’s Subordination
  • New nations often supported women’s suffrage, equal legal rights, education, & occupational opportunities (in theory)
  • In reality, most societies remained patriarchal
    • Men dominated most political positions
      • Prominent female leaders were often related to powerful men
      • Indira Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto, Corazon Aquino
    • Arranged marriages, early marriage ages, and large families
    • Dietary customs increase chances of malnutrition
    • Female infanticide is common in many places
      • China, India, East Africa
    • Religious revivalism erodes women’s rights
      • Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, India, the Sudan
  • Most nations continued to rely upon trading cash crops or raw materials to industrialized nations in return for manufactured goods
    • Price of commodities (cash crops and minerals) often fluctuate
      • One or two bad years could destroy an emerging nation’s economy
    • Some organizations have been formed to limit fluctuation
      • OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Government corruption and lack of reforms also contribute to neocolonialism
  • Nations turn to international organizations or industrial nations for help
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank
arab independence
Arab Independence
  • Saudi Arabia became independent after World War I
  • Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan gained independence after World War II with little difficulty
  • Complete autonomy was difficult
    • Egypt due to Suez Canal
    • Cold War tensions
    • Other states due to oil
      • OPEC
creation of israel
Creation of Israel
  • Israel was created by a UN mandate in 1947
  • Israel seized control of Jerusalem & all of Palestine except the West Bank & Gaza Strip in 1949
  • Israel easily wins the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973
arab nationalism
Arab Nationalism
  • Problems facing Arab nationalism
    • Cold War splits nations as some allied with the U.S. and others the USSR
    • Differing government types (monarchy, military dictatorships, Islamic revolutionary)
    • Sunni-Shi’a split
  • Anwar Sadat facilitated peace process between Arab world & Israel (1978-1980)
    • His reward? He was assassinated in 1981
  • Sadat’s assassination made Saddam Hussein leader of the Arab world
palestinian liberation organization
Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • Created in 1964 by Yasser Arafat to promote Palestinian rights
  • Often resorted to “terrorism” against Israel
  • Negotiated limited Palestinian self-rule in 1993 and 1995
    • PLO was replaced by Hamas as the leading anti-Israeli organization in Palestine

Yasser Arafat, founder of the PLO, and Yitzak Rabin, Israel’s prime minister, shake hands after signing the Olso Accords in 1994

iranian revolution
Iranian Revolution
  • Preliminary Phase
    • Iran was never colonized
    • Shah Reza Pahlavi ruled as a dictator
    • Used oil profits to modernize Iran
    • Reforms angered the middle class, religious leaders, merchants, rural poor, urban laborers, and the army
  • The Event
    • In the late 1970s a decline in oil prices caused massive unemployment and rural unrest
iranian revolution1
Iranian Revolution
  • Initial Phase
    • Sit-ins, riots, urban protests
    • Government exiled religious leaders
    • Military was unwilling to defend the Shah
  • Radical Phase
    • Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile in France & overthrew the Shah in 1979
    • Ayatollah proclaimed himself “jurisprudent”
    • Ayatollah quickly repressed constitutional & leftist revolutionaries
recovery phase
Recovery Phase
  • Shiite Fundamentalism
    • Purge Iran of the “satanic” influences of the U.S. & Europe
      • Banned alcohol, coeducational classrooms, mixed swimming, & western entertainment
    • Institute Sharia law
  • Iran Hostage Crisis
    • Iranians stormed the U.S. embassy taking 70 Americans captive
  • Government Reforms
  • Nationalized banks, insurance companies, & large farms
  • Attempts at land reform and economic development were minimal due to the Iran – Iraq War (1980-1988)