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What do you think this is? Uses?. What do you think this is? Uses? Child and Adult Shackles. Chapter 4 Kansas Territory. The Saga of Bleeding Kansas. Time: 1820-1861 People to Know: David Rice Atchison John Brown Ann Clark Stephen A. Douglas Samuel Jones James Lane Abraham Lincoln.

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chapter 4 kansas territory

Chapter 4Kansas Territory

The Saga of Bleeding Kansas

about the chapter

Time: 1820-1861

  • People to Know:
    • David Rice Atchison
    • John Brown
    • Ann Clark
    • Stephen A. Douglas
    • Samuel Jones
    • James Lane
    • Abraham Lincoln
  • Clarina Nichols
  • Andrew H. Reeder
  • Charles Robinson
  • Charles Sumner
  • John Greenleaf
About the Chapter
about the chapter cont
Words to Understand
  • Abolitionist
  • Antislavery
  • Border ruffian
  • Bushwhacker
  • Demographic
  • Expansionist
  • Free-stater
  • Indentured servant
  • Jayhawker
  • Martyr
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Proslavery
  • Repeal
  • Siege
  • Servitude
  • Speculator
  • Transcontinental
  • Treason
  • Unconstitutional
About the Chapter Cont.
back ground info

Slavery has threatened to tear the country apart

  • Kansans were given the right to choose the outcome of slavery in the state
  • Violence did break out over the issue.
  • “Bleeding Kansas” is one cause of the civil war.
Back Ground Info
the missouri compromise

22 states split evenly

  • Allowed for 2 more states
    • Maine- Free
    • Missouri- Slave
  • Banned slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36,30’ north latitude
    • Includes Kansas
The Missouri Compromise
compromise of 1850

Southern states were still not happy

  • California petitioned to be a free state which would trip the balance.
  • Compromise of 1850 was the answer
    • California admitted as a free state but the Fugitive Slave Act had to be admitted.
      • All citizens were required to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves, and fugitive slaves were denied the right of a jury trial
Compromise of 1850
the kansas nebraska act

Douglas got the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed

    • was an expansionist
    • Anxious to organize the Louisiana purchase into territories
  • Repealed the Missouri Compromise
    • Said state could choose—called popular sovereignty
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
settling the territory

Idea of popular sovereignty brought people from both sides of the slavery issue

  • Most thought that Kansas would be a slave state and Nebraska a free state because Missouri (slave state) was just east of Kansas.
Settling the Territory
for or against

People were either proslavery and antislavery

  • Those who believed that slavery was immoral and should be abolished without delay were abolitionist
    • Not all antislavery people were abolitionists, some people just did not want to see slavery expanded.
      • Those people were called free-staters
For or Against?
for or against cont

Most who came to settle in Kansas came from nearby states.

  • Many came from Missouri
    • Proslavery leaders urged their people to settle Kansas to discourage the presence of a free state on the Missouri border
      • Proslavery groups founded Atchison and gained power in Leavenworth
      • Antislavery groups took over Leavenworth, founded Lawrence and Topeka.
For or Against? Cont.
counting the people of the territory

Andrew H. Reeder

    • 1st Territorial Governor
    • Ordered the 1st Kansas Census
      • Did not count soldiers unless they planned on settling in Kansas
      • Did not count Indians
  • 1st Federal Census
    • 1860
    • 107,209 people
    • 12% of population was foreign born most from British Isles or Germany
    • Only 2 slaves
    • 625 Free African Americans
    • 189 American Indians
    • Only 2 communities were called cities by U.S. government, Leavenworth and Atchison all others were too small
Counting the People of the Territory
how do we know this

U.S.. Government has gathered census data since 1790

    • Every decade
    • Count people and collect basic data about them
    • Info gathered gives us important demographic characteristics of the population
  • Knowing the number of people and where they live is a crucial part of our government
    • # of Representatives a state has
    • How resources are distributed
      • Ex: Federal funding for Education
  • Tells us where someone comes from
  • What type of work they did
  • When they were born
  • If a child attended school
  • Help to show how communities change over time.
How Do We Know This?
why did they come

Most came for cheap land and economic opportunities

  • Land could be obtained through the Preemption Act
    • An individual could claim up to 160 acres
    • Obligated to pay $1.25 per acre once a public land survey was complete
  • As towns developed, shares were sold to investors.
    • Some were settlers
    • Others were absentee speculators
    • All investors wanted a profit, although shares were sold for many towns not all grew.
  • Example p.76 Ellen Goodnow and husband brought 200 people to what is current day Manhattan.
    • Goodnow’s were motivated to end slavery, but not all settlers came for a cause
Why Did They Come
proslavery voices

Wanted slavery in Kansas because of the economic opportunities and to preserve the southern way of life.

  • Envisioned a new territory where southern farmers could prosper
  • Felt if slavery were banned in Kansas this would threatened slavery in other parts of the country.
    • Specifically along the Kansas/Missouri border where 20% of the Missouri slaves were located.
Proslavery Voices
antislavery voices

Antislavery forces wanted to take a stand in Kansas Territory

    • Antislavery forces came because:
      • Fight against slavery
      • Thought slavery was morally wrong
      • Believed it gave slaveholders an unfair economic advantage
  • Many thought proslavery South was moving the U.S. government toward legalizing slavery on a national level (thought supported by Dred Scott Case)
  • Women played a major role in the Antislavery movement.
    • 1830’s image on p.77 was used in needlework, publications, and on writing paper to promote the antislavery movement in America
Antislavery Voices
david rice atchison

U.S. senator from Missouri

  • Lived close to the Kansas border
  • “The prosperity or the ruin of the whole South depends on the Kansas struggle.”
  • Encouraged Missourians to cross the border and illegally vote in Kansas elections to help sway the outcomes
  • Asked for money, moral support, and proslavery settlers to come to the Kansas Territory
David Rice Atchison
dred scott

Slave who sued the government for his freedom. (1857)

  • U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Scott and all African Americans, free or slave, were not citizens of the United States.
  • Supreme Court went farther to say it was unconstitutional for the U.S. government to prohibit slavery in the territories
Dred Scott
emigrant aid societies

Some antislavery advocates came as individuals and others as groups

    • New England Emigrant Aid Company
      • Received both financial and moral support form prominent New England abolitionists
      • Placed ads in newspapers hoping to attract potential settlers to Kansas Territory
      • Settlers traveled in groups at a reduced rate
      • Groups as small as 8 and large as 389 came to Kansas with the Company’s help
      • Once in Kansas settlers were directed to available land
      • Money was raised to help settlers construct public buildings, like hotels and businesses.
      • Invested in newspapers to spread their cause
Emigrant Aid Societies
lane s army of the north

James Lane

    • U.S. representative from Indiana
    • Voted for Kansas-Neb. Act
    • Moved to Kansas Territory and fought against slavery
    • Called slave owners “wolves, snakes, devils”
    • Organized 400 settlers from the north to come to the Kansas Territory.
      • Called Lane’s Army of the North
Lane’s Army of the North
slavery in kansas

In the Kansas Territory slavery did occur but on a much smaller level than in the south

    • Most slave holders in KS had 1 or 2 slaves
    • Most slaves were women or children who preformed domestic duties not hard labor farming
  • Read the Note from Marcus Lindsay Freeman, a slave brought to KS when he was 59 years old. (p.80)
    • In his own words how can you tell that he was not treated like a free man?
Slavery in Kansas
acts of wars

Killing of a free-stater started what became known as the “Wakarusa War”

    • Proslavery supporters arrested a man attending a free-slave meeting
    • Other free-slave supporters came to his rescue but the Sheriff of Douglas county Samuel Jones, southern sympathizer, deemed it a “lawless action”
    • This scarred people in Lawrence who prepared for an attack.
    • For a week Lawrence was under siege this became known as the Wakarusa War.
Acts of Wars
acts of war cont

Wakarusa War

    • Proslavery forces blocked supplies from reaching Lawrence.
    • One story has two woman making a daring attempt to bring ammo through the blockade by sewing it into their petticoats.
    • A big battle never came but the media ran wild with the story and exaggerated the Wakarusa War.
Acts of War Cont.
acts of war cont1

Lawrence residents were very outspoken and the newspapers very critical of proslavery leaders

    • So the proslavery grand jury deemed these newspapers nuisances and Sheriff Jones entered the town with a group of armed men and attacked
    • Burned down two newspaper offices, Charles Robinson’s house and multiple businesses were destroyed
    • 2 people were killed and Sheriff Jones was quoted saying “This is the happiest day of my life, I assure you.”
  • All of this made Nat’l News.
Acts of War Cont.
beecher bibles

Guns carried by proslavery forces were squirrel rifles, heavy buffalo guns, or army muskets.

  • Antislavery forces had access to superior Sharps carbine rifles
    • Called “Beecher Bibles”
      • Named for Henry Ward Beecher and abolitionist preacher from Connecticut
      • His followers founded the Beecher Bible and Rifle Colony.
      • Settlers brought both bibles and rifles to Kansas some rifles in boxes labeled “books” so as not to be detected
Beecher Bibles
the pottawatomie massacre

John Brown assaulted proslavery settlers after hearing the assault on Lawrence was over

    • 5 proslavery men were killed near the Pottawatomie creek in Franklin County
    • Caused many other skirmishes to occur
    • The last was 2 years later when 11 free-state supporters were kidnapped by a group of proslavery men. 5 were killed 5 wounded and 1 survived by pretending to be dead.
The Pottawatomie Massacre
john brown 1800 1859


  • Deeply religious
  • Willing to use violence to end the shame of slavery immediately.
  • After the Pottawatomie Massacre he was a Nat’l figure
    • Also defended the town of Osawatomie when Missourians attacked it
  • Helped slaves escape before coming to Kansas
John Brown 1800-1859
john brown cont 1800 1859

Would ride in Missouri and attack proslavery farms

    • One time he siezed the property and freed 11 slaves
    • Traveled 82 days and over 1,000 miles to transport slaves the slaves to Canada
  • Raised money for guns
  • After he left Kansas he led a raid on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    • Goal was to get weapons to arm slaves
    • Caught tried and convicted of teason
    • He was hung and became a martyr for the abolitionist cause
John Brown Cont.1800-1859

Politics in Kansas were chaotic

    • Election fraud was common
    • 10 different territorial governors served in 7 years
    • 4 different constitutions were written
    • At one point 2 separate governments were working at the same time
election fraud

President Pierce appointed Andrew Reeder to be the 1st Territorial Governor in Kansas

    • Reeder believed in popular sovereignty.
    • 1st Kansas Election- 1854
      • U.S. Delegate
      • John W. Whitfield elected
        • Proslavery
        • Believed majority of votes from Border Ruffians
    • 1st Legislative Election
      • More Border Ruffians
      • “Bogus Legislature”
Election Fraud
the first territorial legislature

Met in Pawnee

    • Why Pawnee
      • Far away from Missouri
      • Reeder was an investor
    • Capital Building
      • No roof, floor, windows, or doors
    • Most legislators stayed in tents
  • Reeder’s Goals
    • Establish counties
    • Setting up a judicial system
    • Levying taxes
    • Organizing a militia
  • Other Needs for the Legislator
    • Determine permanent seat of government
    • Create a constitution
    • Decide if Kansas is a free or slave state
The First Territorial Legislature
the first territorial legislature cont

Kansas Legislator

    • 4 days in Pawnee
      • Kicked out all the antislavery members
      • Government moved to Shawnee Mission
        • Closer to Missouri
        • Reeder removed by Pierce
      • Slave Code Passed
        • Illegal to speak against slavery in territory
        • Angered antislavery people
          • Started their own government
The First Territorial Legislature Cont.
writing a constitution

To be a state

    • Constitution was needed
    • Constitution approved by U.S. Congress
  • Constitutional Conventions
    • Topeka
    • Lecompton
    • Leavenworth
    • Wyandotte
Writing a Constitution
the topeka constitution

A reaction to election fraud

    • 2 government
      • Free-state- Topeka
      • Proslavery- Shawnee Mission
  • Topeka Constitution
    • Who Voted?
      • White males
      • Civilized Indians who assimilated
    • Anti-slavery
    • African-Americans could not live in Kansas
  • Questions of Approval
    • 0 proslavery votes
    • legality
The Topeka Constitution
lecompton constitution

Bogus Legislature

  • Written in Lecompton
  • Lecompton Constitution Vote
    • New free-state Legislature
    • Not allowed to vote for entire constitution
      • w/ or w/out slavery
    • Confusing Ballot
      • Outlawed slavery
      • Protected current slave owners
Lecompton Constitution
lecompton constitution cont

Constitution Passed

    • Residents angered
    • Free-stater’s refused to vote
  • Another vote called
    • By Free-state Legislature
    • Defeated
  • James Buchanan
    • President of U.S.
    • Presented Constitution to Congress
    • Recommended slave state
  • Popular Sovereignty?
    • Congresses Question
      • Was Lecompton Constitution the will of the people in Kansas?
      • Sent back to Kansas
  • Defeated Vote Again
Lecompton Constitution Cont.
leavenworth constitution


  • All men could vote
    • Eliminated word “white”
    • Included Indians
  • Constitution Passed
  • Failed in U.S. Congress
Leavenworth Constitution
the wyandotte constitution and statehood

Free state Constitution

  • Restrictions
    • Most voting rights
    • Militia service
  • Improved women’s rights
  • Slowed in U.S. Congress
    • Main Issue: Slavery
    • Southern Stated seceded
    • Kansas Admitted as Free state
The Wyandotte Constitution and Statehood
charles robinson 1818 1894

Leader of the Free-state movement

  • Elected Governor after Topeka Constitution
    • Not recognized by slavery supporters
    • Arrested for treason and conspiracy
    • Jailed in Lecompton
    • Acquitted
  • Elected again after Wyandotte Constitution
  • 1st Governor of the State of Kansas
Charles Robinson1818-1894
the caning of senator charles sumner

Charles Sumner

    • Anti-slavery
    • Senator
    • Republican
    • “Crime Against Kansas”
      • Called out 2 Democratic Senators
        • Stephan Douglas
          • Called a “noise-some, squat, and nameless animal…not a proper model for an American senator.”
          • Kansas-Neb. Act
        • Andrew Butler
          • South Carolina
          • Proslavery
The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner
the caning of senator charles sumner cont

Rep. Preston Brooks

    • Remarks ungentlemanly
    • Unforgivable
    • From South Carolina
    • Brought a cane to Sumner’s Chambers and beat him unconscious
      • Sumner could not resume work for 3 years
The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner Cont.
clarina nichols


  • New England Emigrant Aid Society
  • Attended Wyandotte Constitutional Convention as a guest
  • Women’s rights
    • child custody
    • voice in education
    • property rights
Clarina Nichols
everyday life in the territory

Poorer Quality of Life

  • Few Doc’s and dentists
  • Brutal winters
  • Severe droughts
  • P.93 read Thaddeus Hyatts comments to the President about the conditions in Kansas (Italicized section)
Everyday Life in the Territory
the pony express

18 months

  • St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California
  • Relay fashion riding
    • 33 mile rides
    • Horses changed every 10-15 miles
  • Cost $5 (many earned less then a $1/day)
  • Transcontinental telegraph
The Pony Express