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The importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles. Chris Osowski chris.osowski@soton.ac.uk – www.osowski.co.uk Institute for Complex Systems Science, University of Southampton

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the importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles

The importance of interactions in determining service measures for bicycles

Chris Osowskichris.osowski@soton.ac.uk – www.osowski.co.ukInstitute for Complex Systems Science, University of Southampton

Ben Watersonb.j.waterson@soton.ac.ukTransportation Research Group, University of Southampton

is this good
Is this good?

From: Warrington Cycle Campaign “Cycle Facility of the Month” (http://goo.gl/EiBnDv)

are these value for money
Are these value for money?

From: Warrington Cycle Campaign “Cycle Facility of the Month” (http://goo.gl/EiBnDv)

capacity of motor infrastructure
Capacity of Motor Infrastructure

From: Transportation Research Board. (2010). Highway Capacity Manual.

capacity of pedestrian infrastructure
Capacity of Pedestrian Infrastructure

From: Colin Buchanan Ltd. (2010)

From: Fruin, J. J. (1971). Pedestrian Planning and Design

From: Halcrow Group Ltd. (2005)

capacity of cycle infrastructure
Capacity of CycleInfrastructure

From: Navin, F. P. D. (1994). Bicycle Traffic Flow Characteristics: Experimental Results and Comparisons. ITE Journal, (March), 31–36.

a quote from fruin
A Quote from Fruin…

“[...] many authorities are using maximum capacity ratings for dimensioning pedestrian space. No evaluation or consideration of human convenience has been made in developing these design standards. The flow curves [... demonstrate] that the maximum capacity of a pedestrian traffic scheme is attained only when there is a dense crowding of pedestrians.”

From: Fruin, J. J. (1971). Pedestrian Planning and Design

what about quality of service
What about Quality of Service?
  • Botma(1995) assumed no impedance; i.e. fixed speed.
  • Does this matter…?
  • Can we use simulation tools, take the best practice of the simulation of other modes and cross-apply itto find out?
use pedestrian modelling
Use Pedestrian Modelling?

From: Colin Buchanan Ltd. (2010)

  • Often continuous space (2D) models.
  • Successful tools at variety of scales
    • Pedroute
    • Legion
    • VisWalk

From: Halcrow Group Ltd. (2005)

the social force model
The Social Force Model
  • Helbing, D., & Molnár, P. (1995). Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Physical Review E, 51(5), 4282–4286.
  • “Motivation to act”
our model purpose
Our Model – Purpose
  • Do interactions matter?

From: CXMagazine.com

our model implementation
Our Model – Implementation
  • Agent Based Model
  • 2 dimensional continuous space
  • Unidirectional flow
  • Fixed path width
  • Parallel boundaries
sfm directional perception
SFM – Directional Perception
  • In Helbing and Molnár (2005):
our model parameters and outputs
Our Model – Parameters and Outputs
  • Bicycle behavioural parameters:
    • Generally from CROW (2007)
  • Exploratory variables:
    • Path Width and Bicycle Arrival Rate
  • Output data:
    • Average speed, average crashing proportion, average distance to the nearest bicycle, etc.
results speed vs flow
Results – Speed vs. Flow

High Quality

Poor Quality

Variable Quality

results crashes
Results – Crashes

(No impedance)

results crashes1
Results – Crashes
  • Flow breakdown with speed-selection occurs primarily as multi-bicycle collisions at the entry:
  • Without speed-selection:
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Lack of robust quantitative measures for capacity or quality of service.
  • Inherent assumption that service quality is satisfactory up to capacity…

…bicycles do not interact in a meaningful way.

conclusions1
Conclusions
  • 2Dmicrosimulation model using the SFM.
  • Basic behavioural traits applied.
  • Data show qualitatively different result...

…sudden collapse in quality of service.

  • Modellingconfirms intuition that we can’t ignore service quality for non-trivial flow rates.
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • EPSRC Doctoral Training Centre grant: EP/G03690X/1
  • University of Southampton:
    • Institute for Complex Systems Simulation

www.icss.soton.ac.uk

    • Transportation Research Group

www.trg.soton.ac.uk

    • IRIDIS High Performance Computing Facility

(and support services)

questions
Questions?

Paper at: https://db.tt/8APJ8Vrk

barriers to cycling1
Barriers to Cycling

From: City of Copenhagen. (2011). Copenhagen: City of Cyclists - Bicycle Account 2010.