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Self-stabilizing energy-efficient multicast for MANETs. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Network Model mobile nodes (PDAs, laptops etc.) multi-hop routes between nodes no fixed infrastructure. Applications Battlefield operations Disaster Relief Personal area networking.

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mobile ad hoc networks manets
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs)

Network Model

  • mobile nodes (PDAs, laptops etc.)
  • multi-hop routes between nodes
  • no fixed infrastructure

Applications

  • Battlefield operations
  • Disaster Relief
  • Personal area networking

Multi-hop routes generated among nodes

Network Characteristics

  • Dynamic Topology
  • Constrained resources
    • battery power

B

C

A

C

A

B

D

D

Links formed and broken with mobility

self stabilization in distributed computing
Self-stabilization in Distributed Computing

Topological Changes and Node Failures for MANETs.

Self-stabilizing distributed systems

  • Guarantee convergence to valid state through local actions in distributed nodes.
  • Ensure closure to remain in valid state until any fault occurs.

Can adaptto topological changes

  • Is it feasible for routing in MANETs?

Fault

Closure

Invalid

State

Valid

State

Convergence

Local actions in distributed nodes.

Applied to Multicasting in MANETs

self stabilizing multicast for manets
Self-stabilizing Multicast for MANETs

Multicast

source

Topological Change

  • Maintains source-based multi-cast tree.
  • Actions based on local information in the nodes and neighbors.
  • Pro-active neighbor monitoring through periodic beacon messages.
  • Neighbor check at each round (with at least one beacon reception from all the neighbors)
  • Execute actions only in case of changes in the neighborhood.

Convergence

Based on

Local actions

Self-Stabilizing Shortest Path Spanning Tree (SS-SPST)

self stabilizing multicast tree construction
Self-stabilizing Multicast Tree Construction
  • Arbitrary Initial State – no multicast tree
    • Parent of each node NULL.
    • Level of each node 0.

S

A

B

  • First Round – source (root) stabilizes
    • level of root is 0.

G

C

D

H

  • Second Round – neighbors of root stabilizes
    • level of root’s neighbors is 1.
    • parent of root’s neighbors is root.

I

J

E

F

  • And so on ……

SS-SPST

  • Pruning of the tree in a bottom-up manner.

Problem – energy-efficiency

is not considered

  • Tolerance to topological changes.
energy consumption model

j

k

i

Ti

l

i

non-intended

neighbor

Ti reaches all nodes in range

Energy Consumption Model

Ci = Ti+NixR

Cost metric

for node i

Transmission energy of node i

Reception cost at all the neighbors

  • Variable through Power Control
  • One transmission reaches all in range
  • Reception energy at intended neighbors.
  • Overhearing energy at non-intended neighbors.

intended neighbor

No communication

schedule during

broadcastin random

access MAC

(e.g. 802.11).

Overhearing at j, k, and l

Ci = Ti + 7R

What is the additional cost if a node selects a parent?

energy aware self stabilizing protocol ss spst e
Energy Aware Self-Stabilizing Protocol (SS-SPST-E)
  • Actions at each node
  • (parent selection)
  • Identify potential parents.
  • Estimate additional cost after joining potential parent.
  • Select parent with minimum additional cost.
  • Change distance to root.

Loop Detected

E

Not in tree

F

A

B

D

C

X

AdditionalCost (B → X) = TB + R

AdditionalCost (A → X) = TA + 2R

Potential Parents of X

  • Action Triggers
  • Parent disconnection.
  • Parent additional cost not minimum.
  • Change in distance of parent to root.

Select Parentwith

minimum Additional Cost

Minimum overall

cost when parent

is locally selected

Execute action when

any action trigger is on

  • Tree validity– Tree will remainconnected
  • withno loops.
ss spst e execution
SS-SPST-E Execution

Multicast

source

  • No multicast tree
    • parent of each node NULL.
    • hop distance from root of each node infinity.
    • cost of each nodeis Emax.

2

2

A

S

B

1

2

2

G

3

1

No potential parents for any node.

  • First Round – source (root) stabilizes
    • hop distance of root from itself is 0.
    • no additionalcost.

1

D

C

H

2

2

  • Second Round – neighbors of root stabilizes
    • hop distance of root’s neighbors is 1.
    • parent of root’s neighbors is root.

Potential parent forA, B, C, D, F={S}.

E

F

2

AdditionalCost (F → E) = TF + 2R

AdditionalCost (D → E) = TD + 3R

AdditionalCost (S → {A, B, C, D}) = Ts + 4R

AdditionalCost(D → E) = TD + 3R

  • And so on ……

Potential parent forE={D, F}.

AdditionalCost (S → F) = TS + 5R

AdditionalCost (C → F) = TC + 3R

AdditionalCost (S → F) = Ts + 5R

Potential parent forF= {S,C}.

  • Tolerance to topological changes.
  • Convergence- From any invalid state the total energy cost of the graph reduces afterevery roundtill all the nodes in the system are stabilized.
  • Proof - through induction on round #.
  • Closure:Once all the nodes are stabilized it stays there untilfurther faultsoccur.
simulation results varying beacon interval
Simulation Results – Varying Beacon Interval

Energy consumption per packet delivered increases due to decrease in number of packets delivered.

simulation results varying beacon interval1
Simulation Results – Varying Beacon Interval

PDR decreases with less beaconing

What is the optimum beacon interval?

improvements to self stabilizing multicast
Improvements to self-stabilizing multicast
  • Fault-localization to reduce stabilization time
    • Incorporate fault-containment mechanism
  • Optimize the beacon interval to minimize overhead energy
    • depends on data traffic arrival
    • depends on changes in link status
    • depends on what level of reliability to attain
  • Management plane required at the network layer to control protocol parameters
simulation results varying node mobility
Simulation Results – Varying Node Mobility

10m/s

15m/s

20m/s

5m/s

1m/s

Low packet delivery with high dynamicity

ODMRP has high PDR due to redundant routes

simulation results varying node mobility1
Simulation Results – Varying Node Mobility

1m/s

5m/s

10m/s

15m/s

20m/s

SS-SPST-Eleads to energy-efficiency

ODMRP has high overhead to generate redundant routes

simulation results varying multicast group size
Simulation Results - Varying Multicast Group Size

40

10

20

30

50

Self-stabilizing protocols scale better.

MAODV has highest delay due to reactive tree construction