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DECIGO : the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna

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  1. DECIGO :the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Illustration/ KAGAYA Seiji Kawamura, Takashi Nakamura, Masaki Ando, Kimio Tsubono, Naoki Seto, Kenji Numata, Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, Tomotada Akutsu, Koh-suke Aoyanagi, Koji Arai, Akito Araya, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Motohiro Enoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Toshifumi Futamase, Katsuhiko Ganzu, Tomohiro Harada, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, Wataru Hikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, Hisashi Hirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Kunihito Ioka, Koji Ishidoshiro, Takehiko Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Ito, Yousuke Itoh, Shogo Kamagasako, Nobuyuki Kanda, Nobuki Kawashima, Hiroyuki Kirihara, Kenta Kiuchi, Werner Klaus, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeyama, Yoshihide Kozai, Hideaki Kudoh, Hiroo Kunimori, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei-ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Yasushi Mino, Jun-ichi Miura, Osamu Miyakawa, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, Tomoko Morioka, Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shigenori Moriwaki, Shinji Mukohyama, Mitsuru Musha, Shigeo Nagano, Isao Naito, Noriyasu Nakagawa, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Erina Nishida, Atsushi Nishizawa, Yoshito Niwa, Masatake Ohashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi Ohkawa, Akira Okutomi, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, Motoyuki Saijo, Masaaki Sakagami, Shin-ichiro Sakai, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki, Shuichi Sato, Takashi Sato, Masaru Shibata, Hisaaki Shinkai, Kentaro Somiya, Hajime Sotani, Naoshi Sugiyama, Hideyuki Tagoshi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryutaro Takahashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Takamori Akiteru, Tadashi Takano, Keisuke Taniguchi, Atsushi Taruya, Hiroyuki Tashiro, Masao Tokunari, Morio Toyoshima, Shinji Tsujikawa, Yoshiki Tsunesada, Ken-ichi Ueda, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshitaka Yamazaki, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Chul-Moon Yoo, Shijun Yoshida, Taizoh Yoshino Masaki Ando (Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo) 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  2. Contents Introduction Pre-conceptual Design Science Roadmap and R&D Summary 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  3. MBH Coalescence Resolved Galactic binary NS-NS binary Inspiral Stellar-core Collapse LIGO ScoX-1 (1yr) Confusion noise by Galactic binaries Pulsar (1yr) DECIGO Primordial Background GW (Wgw=10-14) Gravity Gradient noise (Terrestrial Detectors) Introduction • DECIGO Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory bridges the gap between LISA and terrestrial detectors LISA LCGT, Ad-LIGO 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  4. Drag-free satellite Arm cavity PD Laser Arm cavity PD Drag-free satellite Drag-free satellite Pre-conceptual Design (1) • Pre-conceptual Design FP-Michelson interferometer Arm length: 1000 km Finesse: 10 Laser Power: 10 W Wavelength: 532 nm Mirror (Test mass) Diameter: 1 m Mass: 100 kg Shielded by S/C Orbit and constellation: TBD S. Kawamura, et al., CQG 23 (2006) S125-S131 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  5. Pre-conceptual Design (2) • Sensitivity Floor level : 2x10-24 /Hz1/2 (0.1 - 10Hz) Noise sources Low freq.: Acceleration noise, Radiation pressure noise High freq.: Shot noise(7.5Hz cut-off freq. ) 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  6. Decisive factor: Binary confusion noise WD-WD confusion noise Pre-conceptual Design (3) • Interferometer Design Transponder type vs Direct-reflection type Compare: Sensitivity curve and Expected Science Same detector parameters (Mirror, Laser, etc.) 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  7. Pre-conceptual Design (4) • Arm length Cavity arm length : Limited by diffraction loss Calculate Effective reflectivity(TEM00 TEM00) Laser wavelength : 532nm, Mirror diameter: 1m Optimal beam size 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  8. Pre-conceptual Design (5) • Requirements Practical force noise: 4x10-17 N/Hz1/2 per mirror (Mirror mass: 100kg) Frequency Noise (at 1 Hz) First-stage stabilization: 1 Hz/Hz1/2 Stabilization gain by common-mode arm length: 105 Common-mode rejection ratio : 105 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  9. Pre-conceptual Design (6) • Cavity and S/C control Cavity length change PDH error signal  Mirror position (and Laser frequency) Relative motion between mirror and S/C Local sensor  S/C thruster Displacement Signal between S/C and Mirror Local Sensor S/C 2 S/C 1 Mirror Thruster Thruster Actuator Fig: S. Kawamura Displacement signal between the two Mirrors 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  10. Pre-conceptual Design (7) • S/C thruster force S/C orbit : TBD (ex) Similar orbit as that of LISA Numerical simulation of multi-bode system Include gravity of planets Arm length: 1000km Earth-like orbit, 20deg. Behind the earth Length control is indispensable Acceleration to be controlled: ~4x10-12 m/s2 Black curve: parabolic fitting 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  11. BH+BH(1000Msun) @z=1 NS+NS@z=1 Correlation for 3 years Science by DECIGO (1) • Binary Inspiral Extremely high rate for NS-NS inspirals NS-NS (1.4+1.4Msun) z<1 (SN>26: 7200/yr) z<3 (SN>12: 32000/yr) z<5 (SN>9: 47000/yr) IMBH (1000+1000Msun) z<1 (SN>6000) Fig: N. Seto 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  12. Science by DECIGO (2) • Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe Distant binary is a precise clock  Monitor Doppler shift Expansion+Acceleration? DECIGO GW NS-NS (z~1) Output Template (No Acceleration) Strain Real Signal ? Phase Delay~1sec (10 years) Time Seto, Kawamura, Nakamura, PRL 87, 221103 (2001) 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  13. Science by DECIGO (3) • Constraint to Dark Energy Distance – Red shift relationshipfor NS-NS binaries Constraint to dark energy Distance: determined directly by GW observation Red shift: determined by identifying the host galaxies (10 arcsec at z=1 for two far-separate DECIGOs) 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  14. Roadmap and R&D (1) • Roadmap to DECIGO 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 R&D Advanced R&D PF1 Observation Design & Fabrication PF2 Design & Fabrication Observation DECIGO 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  15. Roadmap and R&D (2) Single S/C with Test mass Laser interferometer Drag-free system Objectives Drag-free system Cavity locking in space Modest sensitivity at 0.1 – 1 Hz  GW observation Details: TBD DECIGO Pathfinder1 Local Sensor Actuator Thruster Fig: S. Kawamura 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  16. Roadmap and R&D (3) DECIGO with modest specification Objectives Cavity locking between two S/C Meaningful sensitivity  GW observation Details: TBD DECIGO Pathfinder2 Fig: S. Kawamura Drag-free satellite Arm cavity PD Laser Arm cavity PD Drag-free satellite Drag-free satellite 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  17. Release Hold Release Hold Release Hold Roadmap and R&D (4) • DECIGO Simulator Objectives Continual free-fall environment Clamp release Modest sensitivity down to 0.1Hz Possibility of long arm Clamp 2m Vertical Position 1 sec Time Fig: S. Kawamura 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  18. Roadmap and R&D (5) • DECIGO Demonstrator Objectives Lock acquisition Drag-free control demonstration Thruster Thruster Satellite A Satellite B Mirror B Mirror A Actuator Local sensor Local sensor Air-hockey table Fig: S. Kawamura 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  19. Roadmap and R&D (6) Budget request for “Frontier of All Wavelength Gravitational Wave Astronomy” submitted in 2005 - TAMA and CLIO - R&D for DECIGO - Pulsar Timing - Super-high frequency G.W. detection Not approved to our surprise Try again? Budget 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  20. Summary DECIGO will have an extremely good sensitivity andopen the GW window widely. DECIGO requires extremely challenging technology development. We hope that we will be able to start the R&D for DECIGO very soon. 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

  21. End 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)