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decigo the japanese space gravitational wave antenna

DECIGO :the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna

Illustration/

KAGAYA

Seiji Kawamura, Takashi Nakamura, Masaki Ando, Kimio Tsubono, Naoki Seto, Kenji Numata, Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, Tomotada Akutsu, Koh-suke Aoyanagi, Koji Arai, Akito Araya, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Motohiro Enoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Toshifumi Futamase, Katsuhiko Ganzu, Tomohiro Harada, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, Wataru Hikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, Hisashi Hirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Kunihito Ioka, Koji Ishidoshiro, Takehiko Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Ito, Yousuke Itoh, Shogo Kamagasako, Nobuyuki Kanda, Nobuki Kawashima, Hiroyuki Kirihara, Kenta Kiuchi, Werner Klaus, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeyama, Yoshihide Kozai, Hideaki Kudoh, Hiroo Kunimori, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei-ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Yasushi Mino, Jun-ichi Miura, Osamu Miyakawa, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, Tomoko Morioka, Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shigenori Moriwaki, Shinji Mukohyama, Mitsuru Musha, Shigeo Nagano, Isao Naito, Noriyasu Nakagawa, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Erina Nishida, Atsushi Nishizawa, Yoshito Niwa, Masatake Ohashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi Ohkawa, Akira Okutomi, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, Motoyuki Saijo, Masaaki Sakagami, Shin-ichiro Sakai, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki, Shuichi Sato, Takashi Sato, Masaru Shibata, Hisaaki Shinkai, Kentaro Somiya, Hajime Sotani, Naoshi Sugiyama, Hideyuki Tagoshi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryutaro Takahashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Takamori Akiteru, Tadashi Takano, Keisuke Taniguchi, Atsushi Taruya, Hiroyuki Tashiro, Masao Tokunari, Morio Toyoshima, Shinji Tsujikawa, Yoshiki Tsunesada, Ken-ichi Ueda, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshitaka Yamazaki, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Chul-Moon Yoo, Shijun Yoshida, Taizoh Yoshino

Masaki Ando

(Department of Physics,

the University of Tokyo)

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

contents
Contents

Introduction

Pre-conceptual Design

Science

Roadmap and R&D

Summary

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

introduction

MBH Coalescence

Resolved

Galactic

binary

NS-NS binary

Inspiral

Stellar-core

Collapse

LIGO

ScoX-1

(1yr)

Confusion noise by

Galactic binaries

Pulsar

(1yr)

DECIGO

Primordial

Background GW

(Wgw=10-14)

Gravity Gradient noise

(Terrestrial Detectors)

Introduction
  • DECIGO

Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory

bridges the gap between LISA and terrestrial detectors

LISA

LCGT, Ad-LIGO

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 1

Drag-free satellite

Arm cavity

PD

Laser

Arm cavity

PD

Drag-free satellite

Drag-free satellite

Pre-conceptual Design (1)
  • Pre-conceptual Design

FP-Michelson interferometer

Arm length: 1000 km

Finesse: 10

Laser

Power: 10 W

Wavelength: 532 nm

Mirror (Test mass)

Diameter: 1 m

Mass: 100 kg

Shielded by S/C

Orbit and

constellation: TBD

S. Kawamura, et al.,

CQG 23 (2006) S125-S131

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 2
Pre-conceptual Design (2)
  • Sensitivity

Floor level : 2x10-24 /Hz1/2 (0.1 - 10Hz)

Noise sources

Low freq.: Acceleration noise, Radiation pressure noise

High freq.: Shot noise(7.5Hz cut-off freq. )

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 3

Decisive factor: Binary confusion noise

WD-WD

confusion noise

Pre-conceptual Design (3)
  • Interferometer Design

Transponder type vs Direct-reflection type

Compare: Sensitivity curve and Expected Science

Same detector parameters (Mirror, Laser, etc.)

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 4
Pre-conceptual Design (4)
  • Arm length

Cavity arm length : Limited by diffraction loss

Calculate Effective reflectivity(TEM00 TEM00)

Laser wavelength : 532nm, Mirror diameter: 1m

Optimal beam size

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 5
Pre-conceptual Design (5)
  • Requirements

Practical force noise:

4x10-17 N/Hz1/2 per mirror

(Mirror mass: 100kg)

Frequency Noise (at 1 Hz)

First-stage stabilization: 1 Hz/Hz1/2

Stabilization gain

by common-mode arm length: 105

Common-mode rejection ratio : 105

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 6
Pre-conceptual Design (6)
  • Cavity and S/C control

Cavity length change

PDH error signal  Mirror position (and Laser frequency)

Relative motion between mirror and S/C

Local sensor  S/C thruster

Displacement Signal between S/C and Mirror

Local Sensor

S/C 2

S/C 1

Mirror

Thruster

Thruster

Actuator

Fig: S. Kawamura

Displacement signal between the two Mirrors

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

pre conceptual design 7
Pre-conceptual Design (7)
  • S/C thruster force

S/C orbit : TBD

(ex) Similar orbit as that of LISA

Numerical simulation of

multi-bode system

Include gravity of planets

Arm length: 1000km

Earth-like orbit,

20deg. Behind the earth

Length control is indispensable

Acceleration to be controlled:

~4x10-12 m/s2

Black curve: parabolic fitting

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

science by decigo 1

BH+BH(1000Msun) @z=1

NS+NS@z=1

Correlation

for 3 years

Science by DECIGO (1)
  • Binary Inspiral

Extremely high rate

for NS-NS inspirals

NS-NS (1.4+1.4Msun)

z<1 (SN>26: 7200/yr)

z<3 (SN>12: 32000/yr)

z<5 (SN>9: 47000/yr)

IMBH (1000+1000Msun)

z<1 (SN>6000)

Fig: N. Seto

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

science by decigo 2
Science by DECIGO (2)
  • Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe

Distant binary is a precise clock  Monitor Doppler shift

Expansion+Acceleration?

DECIGO

GW

NS-NS (z~1)

Output

Template (No Acceleration)

Strain

Real Signal ?

Phase Delay~1sec (10 years)

Time

Seto, Kawamura, Nakamura, PRL 87, 221103 (2001)

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

science by decigo 3
Science by DECIGO (3)
  • Constraint to Dark Energy

Distance – Red shift relationshipfor NS-NS binaries

Constraint to dark energy

Distance: determined directly by GW observation

Red shift: determined by identifying the host galaxies

(10 arcsec at z=1 for two far-separate DECIGOs)

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

roadmap and r d 1
Roadmap and R&D (1)
  • Roadmap to DECIGO

06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

R&D

Advanced R&D

PF1

Observation

Design & Fabrication

PF2

Design & Fabrication

Observation

DECIGO

06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

roadmap and r d 2
Roadmap and R&D (2)

Single S/C with

Test mass

Laser interferometer

Drag-free system

Objectives

Drag-free system

Cavity locking in space

Modest sensitivity at 0.1 – 1 Hz

 GW observation

Details: TBD

DECIGO Pathfinder1

Local Sensor

Actuator

Thruster

Fig: S. Kawamura

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

roadmap and r d 3
Roadmap and R&D (3)

DECIGO with modest specification

Objectives

Cavity locking

between two S/C

Meaningful sensitivity

 GW observation

Details: TBD

DECIGO Pathfinder2

Fig: S. Kawamura

Drag-free satellite

Arm cavity

PD

Laser

Arm cavity

PD

Drag-free satellite

Drag-free satellite

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

roadmap and r d 4

Release Hold

Release Hold

Release Hold

Roadmap and R&D (4)
  • DECIGO Simulator

Objectives

Continual free-fall environment

Clamp release

Modest sensitivity down to 0.1Hz

Possibility of long arm

Clamp

2m

Vertical Position

1 sec

Time

Fig: S. Kawamura

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

roadmap and r d 5
Roadmap and R&D (5)
  • DECIGO Demonstrator

Objectives

Lock acquisition

Drag-free control demonstration

Thruster

Thruster

Satellite A

Satellite B

Mirror B

Mirror A

Actuator

Local sensor

Local sensor

Air-hockey table

Fig: S. Kawamura

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

roadmap and r d 6
Roadmap and R&D (6)

Budget request for

“Frontier of All Wavelength Gravitational Wave Astronomy”

submitted in 2005

- TAMA and CLIO

- R&D for DECIGO

- Pulsar Timing

- Super-high frequency G.W. detection

Not approved to our surprise

Try again?

Budget

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

slide20

Summary

DECIGO will have an extremely good sensitivity

andopen the GW window widely.

DECIGO requires

extremely challenging technology development.

We hope that we will be able to

start the R&D for DECIGO very soon.

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)

slide21
End

11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (July 23 - 29, 2006, Freie Universität Berlin)