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Chapter 12. Vital Signs Assessment. OA 9.24. Describe how to check a victim’s ABCs when performing a primary survey. Primary survey. The secondary survey. Only begin the secondary survey once the athlete is deemed stable Begins with an assessment of vital signs Musculoskeletal Assessment

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Vital Signs Assessment

oa 9 24
OA 9.24
  • Describe how to check a victim’s ABCs when performing a primary survey
the secondary survey
The secondary survey
  • Only begin the secondary survey once the athlete is deemed stable
  • Begins with an assessment of vital signs
  • Musculoskeletal Assessment
  • DOCUMENT EVERYTHING!
the pulse
The Pulse
  • Reflects condition of patient’s circulatory system and cardiac function
  • Pulse is found in the artery
    • Vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
  • Absence of a pulse indicates cardiac arrest or death
the pulse1
The Pulse
  • Rate, rhythm and quality are assessed
    • Rate: normal, abnormal
    • Rhythm: regular, irregular
    • Quality: weak, strong
the pulse2
The Pulse
  • Normal pulse for adults is 60-80 beats per minute (bpm)
    • Athlete’s may be 50-60 bpm
the pulse3
The Pulse
  • Abnormal pulses indicate trauma
    • Rapid & weak: shock, bleeding, diabetic coma, heat exhaustion
    • Rapid and strong: heatstroke, fright
    • Slow and strong: skull fracture, stroke
    • No pulse: cardiac arrest, death.
the pulse4
The Pulse
  • Higher than average pulse rates = tachycardia
  • Lower than average pulse rates = bradycardia
the pulse5
The Pulse
  • Can be found in 11 different places on the body
    • Pulse points
the pulse6
The Pulse
  • Radial
  • Carotid
  • Brachial
  • Femoral
  • Popliteal
  • Posterior Tibial
  • Dorsal pedal
the pulse7
The Pulse
  • Use two fingers to measure pulse rate, rhythm, and quality
    • NEVER USE THE THUMB – WHY?
the pulse8
The Pulse
  • First beat measured is calculated as zero
    • 10 sec x 6
    • 12 sec x 5
    • 15 sec x 4
    • 30 sec x 2
    • 60 sec
respiration
Respiration
  • Process of exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide
    • Takes place in the lungs
    • Regulated by the brain and CO2 levels in the bloodstream
  • Single respiration consists of one inspiration and one expiration
respiration1
Respiration
  • General guidelines for normal rates are:
    • 15 years and older:
      • 12-20 breaths per minute
    • Well-trained athlete:
      • 6-8 breaths per minute
respiratory patterns
Respiratory Patterns
  • Abdominal – belly breathing
  • Apnea – absence of breathing
  • Tachypnea – rapid breathing
  • Bradypnea – slow breathing
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration – pattern of rapid deep breathing followed by apnea
respiratory patterns1
Respiratory Patterns
  • Dyspnea – difficulty breathing
  • Kussmaul’s breathing – hyperventilation
    • Caused by too much CO2in the blood
  • Labored breathing – shown by using shoulders, neck, back muscles to breath
measuring respiration
Measuring Respiration
  • Respiratory rate & pattern are measured
  • Count inhalations & exhalations
  • Watch for chest rise & fall
  • 30 sec x 2 = breaths per minute
  • Describe pattern
measuring respiration1
Measuring Respiration
  • Never tell the patient you aremeasuring their respiration
    • Why?
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Systolic
  • Diastolic
blood pressure terms
Blood Pressure Terms
  • Hypotension
    • Low blood pressure
  • Hypertension
    • High blood pressure
blood pressure terms1
Blood Pressure Terms
  • Sphygmomanometer
    • Blood pressure cuff
    • Measures a person’s blood pressure along with a stethoscope
body temperature
Body Temperature
  • Core temperature
    • Must remain within a relatively narrow range in order for the body’s various systems to function efficiently
body temperature1
Body Temperature
  • Regulated by an area in the brain known as the hypothalamus
    • Group of cells monitors the temperature of the blood and responds to any change of temperature
  • Normal body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit