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Federal Requirements for Hazards Risk Analysis. OBJECTIVES : Discuss background of Federally-mandated requirements for hazard risk assessments Discuss ways other than mandation of imposing Federal requirements on State and local governments

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Federal requirements for hazards risk analysis
Federal Requirements for Hazards Risk Analysis


  • Discuss background of Federally-mandated requirements for hazard risk assessments

  • Discuss ways other than mandation of imposing Federal requirements on State and local governments

  • Review the issues related to all-hazards risk analysis and mitigation planning 

Session 8

Growing pressures for vulnerability and risk assessments
Growing Pressures for Vulnerability and Risk Assessments

  • Federal government has been trying to foster a more systematic approach to emergency management, starting with more rigorous assessments of vulnerability and risk.

  • Much of the pressure comes from the desire of the federal government to reduce its payout to state and local governments for disaster relief and assistance payments after a Presidentially declared disaster.  

  • Additional external pressures come from congressional organizations like the General Accounting Office (GAO) and the Congressional Research Service

Session 8

Risk assessments at the federal state and local levels

  • No Federal or national risk assessment has been done. (Some agencies and organizations may conduct such assessments in connection with their own missions.)  

  • The federal government uses an array of mechanisms, ranging from mandation to more indirect forms of influence that affect how State and local officials approach and conduct hazards risk analysis.

  • Variety of approaches to risk analysis, hazards analysis, and mitigation, used by State and local officials. Two main approaches are single-hazard and all-hazards planning.

Session 8

State government

  • Hazard mitigation requirements for State governments started in 1994, with the Sec. 409 Hazard Mitigation Plan from States. (FEMA officials realized that local governments also should be doing risk assessments and mitigation planning also.)

  • The Disaster Mitigation Act (DMA) of 2000 mandated mitigation plans by both State and local governments, and those plans are required to have a risk assessment component.

  • The DMA took a significant step in requiring State and local governments to conduct a risk vulnerability analysis (RVA) in the course of formulating hazard mitigation strategies.

Session 8

Mandation and other means of imposing requirements
 Mandation and other means of imposing requirements

  • Mandation is the strongest and most direct way in which the federal government imposes requirements on State and local governments.

  • Examples of less direct involvement of the federal government in requirements for hazards analysis and mitigation efforts are the National Dam Safety, Flood Insurance, and Earthquake Hazards Reduction Programs.

    Other requirements come with the contractual relationship between the Federal and state governments for various grants and other forms of financial assistance, including disaster declarations.

Session 8

New mandates and requirements
New Mandates and Requirements

  • Some specific grant and contract language concerning homeland security requirements may appear in the appropriation acts enacted to implement federal statutes.

  • In calendar year 2002, 11 major laws were enacted that dealt with some aspect of homeland security. The regulations and guidance documents issued to implement these laws will contain many requirements for State and local governments and any other recipients of grant funding.

  • In these ways, more obligations are created for State and local governments. State and local governments are fearful of more unfunded mandates.

Session 8

All hazards analysis and mitigation planning
All-Hazards Analysis and Mitigation Planning

I. Pre-Event planning: Most of the discussion and planning is focused primarily on the pre-disaster period and setting.

II. Post-Event Planning: Also is a need for conducting and implementing threat, vulnerability, and risk assessments in the post-disaster period.

Virtually all of these programs and projects deal with natural or industrial/technological disasters. For human-induced hazards, the topic of risk assessment in the post-event environment is a relatively new concept. Main examples are in Arlington, VA and in New York.

Session 8