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Data Acquisition and Analysis. HU164_Lecture 5. RESEARCH METHODS:. Experimental research Descriptive Relational Difference. All Require Data. Distance Measuring Methods/devices. Pacing Odometer Chaining Stadia Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) Global Positioning System (GPS).

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research methods
  • Experimental research
    • Descriptive
    • Relational
    • Difference

All Require Data

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

distance measuring methods devices
Distance Measuring Methods/devices
  • Pacing
  • Odometer
  • Chaining
  • Stadia
  • Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

the best method
The “Best” Method

The best distance measuring method/device to use is influenced by many factors.

  • Environment
  • Use of the data
  • Equipment available
  • Expertise of individuals
  • Personal preference
  • Topography
  • Client specifications
  • Regulations
  • Standard practice

The most important factor is the intended use of the data.

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion


Output, Vo (V)

Force, F

Slope = 5 V/kN

Output, Vo

Load Cell

Input, Fi (kN)

Block Diagram:

Input, F (kN)

Output, Vo (V)


Sensitivity, K = 5 V/kN

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion



This is defined as the smallest input increment change that gives some small but definite numerical change in the output.

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

data acquisition system
Data Acquisition System
  • A data acquisition system consists of many components that are integrated to:
    • Sensephysical variables (use of transducers)
    • Condition the electrical signal to make it readable by an A/D board

Analogue-to-Digital converter

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

das functions
DAS Functions
  • Convert the signal into a digital format acceptable by a computer
  • Process,
  • Analyze,
  • Store, and
  • Display

the acquired data with the help of software

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

typical block diagram for das
Typical Block Diagram for DAS

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion








Electric signals


Sense physical phenomena and translate it into electric signals.

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

signal conditioning
Signal Conditioning

Electrical signals are conditioned so they can be

used by an analog input board. The following

features may be available:

  • Amplification - Isolation
  • Filtering - Linearization

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

analog to digital a d converter

4 Samples/cycle

16 Samples/cycle



8 Samples/cycle

Analog to Digital (A/D) Converter
  • Input signal
  • Sampling rate

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

a d converter resolution
A/D Converter: Resolution

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

data acquisition software
Data Acquisition Software
  • It can be the most critical factor in obtaining reliable, high performance operation.
  • Transforms the PC and DAQ hardware into a complete DAQ, analysis, and display system.
  • Different alternatives:
    • Programmable software.
    • Data acquisition software packages.

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

designing a das factors to consider
Designing a DAS: Factors to Consider
  • Fixed or a mobile application
  • Type of input/output signal: digital or analog
  • Frequency of input signal
  • Resolution, range, and gain
  • Continuous operation
  • Compatibility between hardware and software. Are the drivers available
  • Overall price.

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

  • Measurement and Data Analysis for Engineering and Science (2nd Edition) by Patrick F. Dunn, CRC Press, 2010
  • A Practical Guide to Scientific Data Analysis, David J. Livingstone, Wiley, 2009

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

all analysis involves theory
All analysis involves theory
  • Because your prior ideas guides your eyes
  • Because “pure observations”, neutral and objective, not guided by your “prejustice”, is unlikely

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

quantitative inquiry
Quantitative inquiry
  • Theory guides the development of instruments
  • If not: theory is still embedded in the instrument
    • An analysis of the instruments might reveal the underlying theory
  • Knowledge of the instrument’s theory-base is necessary to interpret findings in adequate terms

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

data analysis
Data Analysis

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

qualitative inquiry
Qualitative inquiry
  • Theory guides
    • the foci for the study
    • the research questions
    • the collection of data
    • the analysis of data

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion

quiz 1
Quiz 1


Answer one question only

  • State three steps to critically evaluate information and discuss one of them.
  • Differentiate between hypothesis, assumption and theory, providing example for each.

HU164_Lec4_Data Acquistion