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What we have learned from 20 Years of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research, and what this means for schools and teachers. Tony Townsend Faculty of Education Monash University Tomorrow’s Teachers: Success through Standards March 31 - April 1, 2002 Zayed University. Perception.

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slide1
What we have learned from 20 Years of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research, and what this means for schools and teachers

Tony Townsend

Faculty of Education

Monash University

Tomorrow’s Teachers: Success through Standards

March 31 - April 1, 2002

Zayed University

slide2

Perception

Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at.

slide8

Perception

Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at.

We can, however, change people’s perceptions of the world by providing them with new information.

slide9

Gerstner et al., 1994: 3

...this one most vital area of our national life - public education - has not undergone the process of revitalising change. In our economic and social life we expect change, but in the public schools we have clung tenaciously to the ideas and techniques of earlier decades and even previous centuries.

slide10

Hargreaves, 1994: 43-44

Schools are still modelled on a curious mix of the factory, the asylum and the prison... We are glad to see the end of the traditional factory; why should we expect the school modelled on it to be welcome to children?

hood 1998 3
Hood, 1998:3

Structurally the curriculum is much the same as it has been for the last 50 years, as is how teachers approach the curriculum. Students are still divided into classes of about the same number, primarily based on age. The day is rigidly fixed within specific timeframes and divided by inflexible timetables. Teachers teach subjects, and front up each hour to a different group of students. Classrooms are designed and used as they were 50 years ago, even though the décor might have changed. Assessment of learning is still dominated by national external examinations.

slide12

From 2nd to 3rd Millennium Schools

Focus Scope of an

of delivery effective

education

From 1000 to 1870 Individualfew

From 1870 to 1980 Localsome

From 1980 to 2000 Nationalmany

slide13

Townsend, 1998: 248

We have conquered the challenge of moving from a quality education system for a few people to a quality education system for mostpeople. Our challenge now is to move from having a quality education system for most people to a quality education system for allpeople.

slide14

From 2nd to 3rd Millennium Schools

Focus Scope of an

of delivery effective

education

From 1000 to 1870 Individualfew

From 1870 to 1980 Localsome

From 1980 to 2000 Nationalmany

From 2000 Globalall

coleman et al 1966 325
Coleman et al., 1966:325

Schools bring little influence to bear on a child's achievement that is independent of his background and general social context... this very lack of an independent effect means that the inequalities imposed on children by their home, neighbourhood and peer environment are carried along to become the inequalities with which they confront adult life at the end of school. For equality of educational opportunity must imply a strong effect of schools that is independent of the child's immediate environment, and that strong independence is not present in American schools.

edmonds 1978 3
Edmonds, 1978:3

I define an effective school as being instructionally successful for all children excepting those of certifiable physical, emotional or mental handicap. Specifically, I require that an effective school bring the children of the poor to those minimal masteries of basic school skills that now describe minimally successful pupil performances for the children of the middle class.

possible goals for effective schools
Possible Goals for Effective Schools
  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Other Academic Goals (eg science, history)
  • Behaviour
  • Attendance
  • Self-concept
  • Citizenship
  • Employment
  • Other Educational Goals (eg values, attitudes)
  • Community Goals (eg involvement, safety)
townsend 1994 37
Townsend, 1994: 37

L

N

OA

B

A

SC

C

E

OE

Com

Possible goals for schools

mortimore et al 1988 176
Mortimore et al, 1988: 176

The study of fifty English junior schools, sought to ‘find a way of comparing schools' effects on their pupils, while acknowledging the fact that schools do not all receive pupils of similar abilities and backgrounds’.

townsend 1994 46
Townsend, 1994: 46

VALUE-ADDED BASIS

OUTCOME BASIS

Techniques for measuring effective schools

townsend 1994 42
Townsend, 1994: 42

COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

SCHOOL REVIEW AND EVALUATION

REPUTATIONAL APPROACH

STANDARDISED TESTING

Techniques for identifying effective schools

townsend 1994 47
Townsend, 1994: 47

COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

D

E

SCHOOL REVIEW AND EVALUATION

D

D

S

A

REPUTATIONAL APPROACH

E

E

M

U

O

STANDARDISED TESTING

L

C

A

V

T

U

O

L

N

OA

B

A

SC

C

E

OE

Com

Model for recognising effective schools

townsend 1994 48
Townsend, 1994:48

An effective school is one that develops and maintains a high quality educational programme designed to achieve both system-wide and locally identified goals. All students, regardless of their family or social background, experience both improvement across their school career and ultimate success in the achievement of those goals, based on appropriate external and school-based measuring techniques.

mcgaw et al 1992 174
McGaw et al. (1992:174)

School effectiveness is about a great deal more than maximising academic achievement. Learning, and the love of learning; personal development and self-esteem; life skills; problem solving and learning how to learn; the development of independent thinkers and well-rounded, confident individuals; all rank as highly or more highly in the outcomes of effective schooling as success in a narrow range of academic disciplines.

townsend 1994
Townsend, 1994

The core-plus curriculum ensures that both:

The CORE areas, those areas identified by the state as being so important that every child should learn and know them,

AND

The PLUS areas, those areas identified by the school community as being important to their children, are given the time, attention and resources necessary for those skills, attitudes and knowledge to be planned for, learned and evaluated.

slide32

Townsend, 1994

The core-plus school gives attention to both:

Its CORE responsibility, namely, the education of the children in its care,

AND

Its PLUS activities, namely, the development of processes, programs and practices that will assist the local community to identify and resolve the educational needs of its members.

mcgaw banks piper 1991 15
McGaw, Banks &Piper, 1991: 15

There is no definitive how of effective schools and so there can be no one recipe for every school to try.

Schooling is too complex a business for a recipe.

codding 1994 5
Codding, 1994: 5

Schools must do the job well and be held accountable for results. But there is also the growing feeling nationally that schools cannot do it alone. Children attend school for about one day of every two during the year and then for only 7 or 8 hours a day. For the rest of the time our American children are subject to the influence of the family, the neighborhood, the streets, the peer culture, and the media. We all create the conditions in which children learn and grow. And there is a growing belief that if we wish them to learn and grow well, we must attend to the quality of these conditions.

school and class effects
School and Class Effects

Percent of Variance in Value-Added Measures of English and Mathematics Achievement Accounted for by School and Class Effects

Class (%) School (%)

English

Primary 45 9

Secondary 38 7

Mathematics

Primary 55 4

Secondary 53 8

Peter Hill, 1997: 9

a world class school
A world class school
  • a clear vision, underpinned by a set of values which will guide its policies, procedures and practices;
  • a strong focus on the student outcomes to improve both curriculum and teaching practices;
  • a professional learning community which adopts knowledge-based practices based on continuous self-evaluation in the pursuit of excellence;

HK SBM Consultation Document, 1999

slide37

A world class school

  • a strong alliance of stakeholders, including parents, teachers and community members, working in partnership to develop the potential of each and every student to the fullest extent;
  • school management which is open, transparent and publicly accountable for its educational achievements and proper use of public funds.

HK SBM Consultation Document, 1999

stoll fink 1997
Stoll & Fink (1997)

Improving

Declining

Effective

Moving

Cruising

Strolling

Ineffective

Struggling

Sinking

what school is your school
What school is your school?
  • Moving (effective and improving)
  • Cruising (effective but declining)
  • Strolling (OK but not going anywhere)
  • Struggling (not effective but getting better)
  • Sinking (not effective and getting worse)
what school is your school40
What school is your school?
  • Relations with the wider community
  • Extra curricular activities
  • Sporting achievement
  • Staff health and well-being
  • Student attendance
  • Staff involvement in decisions
  • Financial management
  • Student behaviour
  • School ethos and climate
  • Curriculum development
  • Assessment of student progress
  • Reporting to parents
  • Relations with region/department
  • Staff cooperation
  • Inducting new staff
  • Student group learning
  • Celebrate achievement
  • Student achievement
  • Staff-student relationships
  • Student welfare
  • Literacy attainment
  • Numeracy attainment
  • Balanced curriculum
  • Student responsibility
  • School facilities and environment
  • Parent involvement
  • School leadership
  • Professional development
  • Fund raising
  • Marketing the school
  • Staff-administration relationship
  • Communication to parents
2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium

Thinking

Important learning

can only occur in

formal learning

facilities.

slide42

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Important learning People can learn

can only occur in things from many

formal learning sources.

facilities.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking43
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Everyone must

learn a common

‘core’ of content.

slide44

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Everyone must Everyone must

learn a common understand the

‘core’ of content. learning process and have basic learning skills.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking45
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

The learning process is

controlled by the teacher.

What is to be taught,

when it will be taught and

how it should be taught

all be determined by a

professional person.

slide46

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

The learning process is The learning process is

controlled by the teacher. controlled by the

What is to be taught, learner. What is to be

when it will be taught and taught, when it should be

how it should be taught taught and how it should

all be determined by a be taught will all be

professional person.determined by the learner.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking47
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Education and

learning are

individual activities.

Success is based on

how well learners

learn as individuals.

slide48

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Education and Education and learning

learning are are highly interactive

individual activities. activities. Success is

Success is based on based on how well

how well learners learners work together

learn as individuals. as a team.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking49
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Formal education

prepares people

for life.

slide50

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Formal education Formal education

prepares people is the basis for

for life. lifelong learning.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking51
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Once you leave

formal education,

you enter the ‘real

world’.

slide52

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Once you leave Formal education

formal education, provides a range of

you enter the ‘real interactions between

world’. learners and the world of business, commerce and politics.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking53
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

The more formal

qualifications you

have the more

successful you

will be.

slide54

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

The more formal The more capability

qualifications you and adaptability you

have the more have the more

successful you successful you will

will be. be.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking55
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Basic education is

funded by

government.

slide56

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

Basic education is Basic education is

funded by funded by both

government. government and private sources.

2nd millennium and 3rd millennium thinking57
2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

The terms

‘education’ and

‘school’ mean

almost the same

thing.

slide58

2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking

Second Millennium Third Millennium

Thinking Thinking

The terms ‘School’ is only one

‘education’ and of a multitude of

‘school’ mean possibilities on the

almost the same education journey.

thing.

challenges for the future
Challenges for the Future
  • How do technological developments impact on the school?
townsend 1997 20
Townsend; 1997: 20

We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

slide62

Townsend; 1997: 20

We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

slide63

Townsend; 1997: 20

We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

slide64

Townsend; 1997: 20

We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

thomas watson chairman ibm
Thomas Watson, Chairman, IBM

I think there is a world market for maybe 5 computers

1943

slide66

Challenges for the Future

  • How do technological developments impact on the school?
  • Are schools cost effective in terms of their accessibility and client base?
slide67

Staples, 1989

The 20/20 schoolserves about 20% of the population (children) for about 20% of the time (61/2 hours per day, 5 days per week, 40 weeks per year).

slide68

Staples, 1989

The 20/20 schoolserves about 20% of the population (children) for about 20% of the time (61/2 hours per day, 5 days per week, 40 weeks per year).

The 100/100 schoolis open all the time for anyone who wishes to use it. Children, parents, community members all have access to the facilities of the school.

slide69

Challenges for the Future

  • How do technological developments impact on the school?
  • Are schools cost effective in terms of their accessibility and client base?
  • Are schools relevant?
carr 1942 34
Carr, 1942: 34

Many schools are like little islands set apart from the mainland of life by a deep moat of convention and tradition. Across the moat there is a drawbridge, which is lowered at certain periods during the day in order that the part-time inhabitants may cross over to the island in the morning and go back to the mainland at night. Why do these young people go out to the island? They go there in order to learn how to live on the mainland.

slide71

Carr, 1942: 34

Many schools are like little islands set apart from the mainland of life by a deep moat of convention and tradition. Across the moat there is a drawbridge, which is lowered at certain periods during the day in order that the part-time inhabitants may cross over to the island in the morning and go back to the mainland at night. Why do these young people go out to the island? They go there in order to learn how to live on the mainland.

challenges for 3rd millennium schools
Challenges for 3rd Millennium Schools
  • To develop a curriculum that is appropriate to a modern, technological and culturally diverse society.
slide74

THE INTENDED CURRICULUM

- expectations about learning outcomes

and standards to be achieved

- content and skills to be taught and learned

slide75

THE INTENDED CURRICULUM

- expectations about learning outcomes

and standards to be achieved

- content and skills to be taught and learned

THE IMPLEMENTED CURRICULUM

- what teachers do in classrooms

- teaching and learning practices

- pedagogy

slide76

THE INTENDED CURRICULUM

- expectations about learning outcomes

and standards to be achieved

- content and skills to be taught and learned

THE IMPLEMENTED CURRICULUM

- what teachers do in classrooms

- teaching and learning practices

- pedagogy

THE ATTAINED CURRICULUM

- demonstration of learning outcomes by students

- actual achievement of students in

relation to standards

the four pillars of the global classroom
The Four Pillars of the Global Classroom
  • Education for Survival
  • Understanding our place in the world
  • Understanding community
  • Understanding our personal responsibility
slide78

Challenges for 3rd Millennium Schools

  • To develop a curriculum that is appropriate to a modern, technological and culturally diverse society.
  • To actively engage every student in their learning.
gardner s intelligences
Gardner’s Intelligences
  • linguistic
  • logical-mathematical
  • spatial
  • musical
  • bodily-kinesthetic
  • naturalistic intelligence
  • intrapersonal
  • interpersonal
  • existential
learning styles
Learning Styles
  • Left style - Analytic

logical thought

sequential approach to tasks

excel in language-centred activity

step-by-step towards the big picture

  • Right style - Global

think in patterns and relationships

provide summaries and overviews rather than facts

from big picture to smaller detail

the relationalearning model otero and sparks 2000
The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000)

RECOGNISING

Awareness

Facts for Forgetting

Global Self-regulated

Learners

EngagedLearners

IsolatedLearners

the relationalearning model otero and sparks 200082
The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000)

UNDERSTANDING

Adaptability

Concepts for Analysing

RECOGNISING

Awareness

Facts for Forgetting

Global Self-regulated

Learners

Interactive/Introspective

Learners

EngagedLearners

IsolatedLearners

the relationalearning model otero and sparks 200083
The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000)

VALUING

Interaction

Ethics for Discussion

UNDERSTANDING

Adaptability

Concepts for Analysing

RECOGNISING

Awareness

Facts for Forgetting

Global Self-regulated

Learners

Interactive/Introspective

Learners

EngagedLearners

IsolatedLearners

the relationalearning model otero and sparks 200084
The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000)

RELATING

Interdependence

Options for Positive Action

VALUING

Interaction

Ethics for Discussion

UNDERSTANDING

Adaptability

Concepts for Analysing

RECOGNISING

Awareness

Facts for Forgetting

Global Self-regulated

Learners

Interactive/Introspective

Learners

EngagedLearners

IsolatedLearners

survival values in learning
Survival Values in Learning

100%

Attitudes and feelings about subjects, studies, self

80%

Per cent of

usefulness

retained

assuming

100%

original

effectivenss

Thinking skills and processes

70%

Motor skills

50%

Conceptual schemes

35%

Factual material

10%

Nonsense syllables

6

12

0

Elapsed time (months)

slide86

Challenges for 3rd Millennium Schools

  • To develop a curriculum that is appropriate to a modern, technological and culturally diverse society.
  • To actively engage every student in their learning.
  • To provide the opportunity for everyone in the school community to become a learner, a teacher and a leader in the third millennium.
from effective schools to effective teachers
From Effective Schools to Effective Teachers

Modern Teachers need to be developed as capable which is seen as moving ‘beyond’ initial competencies. The Capable Teacher is what we should be seeking to develop, encourage and honour as the hallmark of our profession.

Cairns, 1998: 1

teacher capability
Teacher Capability

Capability is…

having justified confidence in your ability to:

  • take appropriate and effective action
  • communicate effectively
  • collaborate with others
  • learn from experiences

in changing and unfamiliar circumstances.

Stephenson, 1993

capability learning model
Capability Learning Model

Three intertwined elements:

  • Ability (describes both competence and capacity)
  • Values (the ideals that govern the use of ability)
  • Self-efficacy (the way people judge their capability to carry out actions effectively)
capability
Capability

unfamiliar

tasks/

problems

novel

problems in

familiar

contexts

unfamiliar

problems in

unfamiliar

contexts

familiar

problems in

familiar

contexts

familiar

problems in

novel

contexts

familiar

contexts/situations

nutrients for a hospitable teacher culture
Nutrients for a hospitable teacher culture
  • being valued
  • being encouraged
  • being noticed
  • being trusted
  • being listened to
  • being respected

Southworth, 2000

slide92

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

slide93

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

slide94

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

slide95

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

monitoring and

assessment

slide96

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

monitoring and

assessment

classroom teaching

strategies

classroom teaching

strategies

slide97

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

monitoring and

assessment

classroom teaching

strategies

classroom teaching

strategies

professional

learning teams

professional

learning teams

slide98

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

monitoring and

assessment

School and class

organisation

School and class

organisation

classroom teaching

strategies

classroom teaching

strategies

professional

learning teams

professional

learning teams

general design for improving learning outcomes hill and crevola 1997
General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

Intervention and

special assistance

Intervention and

special assistance

beliefs and

understandings

beliefs and

understandings

monitoring and

assessment

School and class

organisation

School and class

organisation

classroom teaching

strategies

classroom teaching

strategies

professional

learning teams

professional

learning teams

slide100

General Design for Improving Learning OutcomesHill and Crevola 1997

leadership and

coordination

standards

and targets

home, school and

community partnerships

Intervention and

special assistance

beliefs and

understandings

monitoring and

assessment

School and class

organisation

classroom teaching

strategies

professional

learning teams

more information
More information

If you would like more details contact

Tony Townsend:

Phone: Int + 61 3 9904 4230

Fax: Int + 61 3 9904 4237

email: tony.townsend@education.monash.edu.au