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What Is Motivation?. Motivation The willingness to exert effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals. The Motivation Process. Exhibit 14.1.

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what is motivation
What Is Motivation?
  • Motivation
    • The willingness to exert effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
      • Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.

Page 292

the motivation process
The Motivation Process

Exhibit 14.1

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what is motivation4
What Is Motivation?
  • Need
    • An internal state that makes certain outcomes (results) appear attractive.
    • An unsatisfied need creates tension which is reduced by an effort to satisfy the need.
  • Early Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • MacGregor’s Theories X and Y
    • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

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early theories of motivation
Early Theories of Motivation
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • Physiological needs:
      • Food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, others…
    • Safety needs
      • Physical & emotional security and protection.
    • Social needs
      • Affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship.
    • Esteem needs
      • Internal factors: Self-respect, autonomy, achievement
      • External factors: Status, recognition and attention.
    • Self-actualization needs
      • Growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment.

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early theories of motivation6
Early Theories of Motivation
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs.
      • Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.
      • Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
      • Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.
    • Hierarchy of needs
      • Lower-order (external): physiological, safety
      • Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization

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maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Exhibit 14.2

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early theories of motivation8
Early Theories of Motivation
  • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    • Theory X
      • Lower-order needs dominate individuals (little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, require close supervision).
    • Theory Y
      • Higher-order needs dominate (workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work).
    • McGregor believed that Theory Y was more valid in workers and proposed that participation in decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations would maximize employee motivation.

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early theories of motivation9
Early Theories of Motivation
  • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    • Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.
      • Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction.
      • Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction.
    • Attempted to explain why eliminating hygiene factors does not necessarily result in increased motivation.
      • People won’t be dissatisfied, but they won’t be satisfied nor motivated.
    • To motivate people, Herzberg suggested emphasizing motivators (the intrinsic factors) that increase job satisfaction.

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contemporary theories of motivation
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • Three-Needs Theory
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Reinforcement Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Designing Motivating Jobs

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motivation and needs
Motivation and Needs
  • Three-Needs Theory
    • There are three acquired needs that are major motives in work.
    • Need for achievement (nAch)
      • The drive to excel, to achieve, and to succeed
    • Need for power (nPow)
      • The need to influence the behavior of others
    • Need of affiliation (nAff)
      • The desire for friendly and interpersonal relationships

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motivation and needs14
Motivation and Needs
  • Three-Needs Theory
    • High achievers do not necessarily make good managers; they focus on their own accomplishments while good managers emphasize helping others accomplish goals. The best managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation.

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motivation and goals
Motivation and Goals
  • Goal-Setting Theory
    • Proposes that setting specific goals increase performance, and difficult (challenging) goals result in higher performance than easy goals.
  • Benefits of Goal-Setting
    • The specificity (particularity) of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus (stimulation).
      • E.g. When a sales representative commits (promises) to making eight sales calls daily, this commitment gives him/her a specific goal to attain.

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goal setting theory
Goal-Setting Theory

Exhibit 14.6

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motivation and behavior
Motivation and Behavior
  • Reinforcement Theory
    • Assumes that behavior is externally caused, and controlled by its consequences (reinforcers).
      • People will behave as desired if they are rewarded for doing so, behavior that isn’t rewarded is less likely to be repeated.
      • Reinforcers are the consequences (rewards) that increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated
      • Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors.

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motivation and perception
Motivation and Perception
  • Equity Theory
    • Proposes that employees compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others.

Inputs-outcomes ratio: what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs).

      • If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists.
      • If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under-rewarded or over-rewarded.
      • Employee motivation is influenced by relative rewards as well as by absolute rewards.

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equity theory
Equity Theory

Exhibit 14.7

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motivation and perception equity theory
Distributive justice

The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what).

Influences an employee’s satisfaction.

Procedural justice

The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e., how was it distributed).

Influences an employee’s organizational commitment.

Motivation and PerceptionEquity Theory

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motivation perception and behavior
Motivation, Perception, and Behavior
  • Expectancy Theory
    • States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on
    • the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and
    • the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
    • Key to the theory is understanding employee goals and the linkages (relationships) between effort, performance and rewards.

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motivation perception and behavior23
Motivation, Perception, and Behavior
  • Expectancy Relationships
    • Expectancy (effort-performance linkage)
      • How hard do I have to work to achieve a certain level of performance? and Can I actually achieve that level?
    • Instrumentality (performance-reward linkage)
      • What reward will that level of performance get me?
    • Valence or attractiveness of reward
      • How attractive is the reward to me?
      • Whether employees are motivated or not depends on their particular goals and their perception of the level of performance needed to attain those goals.

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simplified expectancy model
Simplified Expectancy Model

Exhibit 14.8

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designing motivating jobs
Designing Motivating Jobs

Definitions:

  • Job enlargement (horizontal expansion)
    • Increasing the scope (number of tasks) in a job.
  • Job enrichment (vertical expansion)
    • Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job.

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designing motivating jobs27
Designing Motivating Jobs
  • Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
    • A framework for designing motivating jobs.
    • It identifies Five job characteristics and their impact on employee productivity, motivation and satisfaction.
      • Skill variety: how many skills and talents are needed?
      • Task identity: does the job produce a complete work?
      • Task significance: how important is the job?
      • Autonomy: how much independence does the jobholder have?
      • Feedback: do workers know how well they are doing?

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designing motivating jobs28
Designing Motivating Jobs
  • Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
    • According to the JCM, any job can be described in terms of five core dimensions:
      • Skill variety: The degree and variety of activities required so that an employee can use a number of different skills.
      • Task identity: The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
      • Task significance: The degree to which a job impacts the lives or work of other people.
      • Autonomy: The degree to which a job provides freedom in scheduling and determining procedures.
      • Feedback: The degree to which a job results in direct and clear information about performance effectiveness.

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job characteristics model
Job Characteristics Model

Source:J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission of the authors.

Exhibit 14.10

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designing motivating jobs30
Designing Motivating Jobs
  • Suggestions for Using the JCM
    • Combine tasks (job enlargement): To increase skill variety and task identity.
    • Create natural work units: Design tasks that form a whole so employees view their work as important rather than irrelevant and boring.
    • Establish client relationships: Between workers and their clients to increase skill variety, autonomy and feedback.
    • Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment): Gives employees responsibilities and controls that were reserved for managers. It increases employee autonomy (independence).
    • Open feedback channels: To let employees know how well they are performing their jobs. Employees should receive performance feedback directly as they do their jobs.

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guidelines for job redesign
Guidelines for Job Redesign

Source:J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission of the authors.

Exhibit 14.11

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c h a p t e r r e v i e w 1 3
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 1/3

What Is Motivation? (slides 2, 4)

  • Define motivation.
  • Explain motivation as a need-satisfying process.

Early Theories of Motivation (slides 5, 6, 8, 9)

  • Describe the five levels in Maslow’s hierarchy and how Maslow’s hierarchy can be used in motivational efforts.
  • Discuss how Theory X and Theory Y managers approach motivation.
  • Describe Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory.
  • Explain Herzberg’s views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

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c h a p t e r r e v i e w 2 3
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 2/3

Contemporary Theories of Motivation(slides 13, 16, 18, 19, 21~23)

  • Describe the three needs McClelland proposed as present in work settings.
  • Explain how goal-setting and reinforcement theories explain employee motivation.
  • Describe the job characteristics model as a way to design motivating jobs.
  • Discuss the motivation implications of equity theory.
  • Contrast distributive justice and procedural justice.
  • Explain the three key linkages in expectancy theory and their role in motivation.

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c h a p t e r r e v i e w 3 3
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 3/3

Motivating Organizational Members (slides 27, 28, 30)

  • Describe the job characteristics model as a way to design motivating jobs.

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