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Proslavery forces: proposed a new and more effective Fugitive Slave Law . X. Antislavery forces: provided that California be admitted as a free state. X.

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Proslavery forces: proposed a new and more effective Fugitive Slave Law

X

Antislavery forces: provided that California be admitted as a free state.

X

Proslavery forces: held that alleged fugitives were not entitled to a trial; stipulated that anyone convicted of helping was subject to a fine and imprisonment.

X

Antislavery forces: provided a means of escape for fugitive slaves

X

Proslavery forces: established popular sovereignty in new territories

X

Antislavery forces: believed that the spread of slavery threatened the free labor system; opposed slavery on moral grounds

X

Proslavery forces: held that being on free soil did not make a slave free; appeared to permit and even guarantee the extension of slavery

X

Antislavery forces: was an attempt to ignite a general slave uprising

X

Antislavery forces: Lincoln opposed expansion of slavery and felt slavery was morally wrong

X

Debate on the issue of slavery: Lincoln opposed, Douglas for

Was the representative from the state of Mississippi, became the President of the Confederate States of America

Author: Uncle Tom’s Cabin

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Civil War begins

Lincoln’s desire to win the war; the need to appease abolitionists, the need to harm the Confederate war effort (slaves were being used to aid the war effort in the South)

African Americans make up nearly 10 per cent of the Northern Army. African Americans soldiers serve bravely; African Americans soldiers suffer discrimination

Food prices skyrocket, and inflation rises 7,000 per cent.

Northern Army defeated in the first battle of the Civil War. Led Lincoln to up enlistments

Lincoln offered Lee command of the northern army 1st. Brilliant Southern general who drove McClellan away from Richmond.

Bloodiest single-day battle in American history; Northern Army prevented the Confederates from attacking Washington D.C.

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It broke the charm of Robert E. Lee’s invincibility: shattered Southern moral.

Abraham Lincoln helped the nation realize that it was a single nation, not just a collection of states.

Strategy: to destroy Lee’s army in Virginia while Sherman raided Georgia. Tactics: attack constantly, engage in total war (against civilians as well as military.

Goal: to destroy the will of the Southerner’s to fight. Tactics: Engage in total war, destroy civilian property.

John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln 5 days after the surrender of Lee to Grant at Appomattox

Political Changes: increased the federal government’s authority and power; gave the national government more control over individual citizens.

The Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery in the United States.

Economic Changes: The Northern Economy boomed, while the Southern economy was devastated; wrecked most of the South’s industry and ruined much of it’s farmland.

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Responses: Congress shifts control of the Reconstruction process from the executive branch to the legislative branch: Congress impeaches Johnson: economic crisis draw political attention of voters and politicians away from Reconstruction: Reconstruction ends

Political Problems: Radical Republicans oppose Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction plan: Johnson continues to block Reconstruction: money crisis plague Grant’s administration; Hayes makes a political deal with Southern Democrats during the national election of 1876.

Responses: Republican governments begin public works programs to repair the physical damage and to provide social services: landowners initiate the sharecropping system

Southern farms were ruined, and the regions' population is devastated: the plantar class wants to restore the plantation system

African Americans move to towns and cities to find work: they also seek education, build churches, and schools, and take an active part in the political process; Congress passes a series of Enforcement Acts.

African Americans in the South deal with freedom: Ku Klux Klan terrorizes Republicans and African Americans

A white Southerner who joined the Republican party

A white Northerner who moved south during Reconstruction for either honorable or unscrupulous reasons

A system in which workers farmed land belonging to another in exchange for a share of the crop.

Gave African American males the right to vote

Republican president elected in 1876; struck deal with Democrats , which effectively ended Reconstruction in the South