HE Calorimeter Upgrade Studies Proposing to replace HE scintillators with quartz plates for high luminosity LHC runs. “HE UPGRADE PHASE II ISSUES” Yasar Onel. US-HE Upgrade Group: Iowa, Baylor, Fairfield, Fermilab , FIU, Maryland , Mississippi Extended US Group for HCAL Upgrades:
US-HE Upgrade Group:
Iowa, Baylor, Fairfield, Fermilab, FIU, Maryland, Mississippi
Extended US Group for HCAL Upgrades:
Boston, Minnesota, Princeton, Virginia, Notre Dame
Bogazici U. Istanbul,Turkey
Cukurova U, Adana, Turkey
ITU, Istanbul, Turkey
A) As a baseline, replace the scintillator tiles in the original design of the hadronicendcap calorimeter (HE) with quartz plates. Quartz is proven to be radiation hard by the radiation damage tests with electron, proton, neutron and gamma beams.
B) As an addition to a) above, deposit on the quartz plates radiation-hard scintillator films. The films include pTerphenyl(pTP) and ZnO:Ga.
C) As a baseline, develop replaceable arrangements of wavelength shifting(WLS) fibers, which have been shown to collect efficiently the Cherenkov light generated in quartz plates. The configuration with high light yield is straight—through and amenable to periodic replacement.
D) Instead of c) above, develop rad-hard WLS fibers based on a quartz core, and using multicaldded films of rad-hard scintuillator/WLS, such as pTP or doped ZnO or doped CdS.
Electron Irradiation Tests:
Dumanogluet al. “Radiation-hardness studies of high OH content quartz fibres irradiated with 500 MeV electrons” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 490 (2002) 444-455
Proton Irradiation Tests:
Cankocak et al. “Radiation-hardness measurements of high OH content quartz fibres irradiated with 24 GeV protons up to 1.25 Grad“ Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 585 (2008) 20–27
Neutron and Gamma Irradiation Tests:
U. Akgunet al. “Radiation Damage in Quartz Fibers
Exposed to Energetic Neutrons”
“Radiation Damage in Quartz Fibers Exposed to Energetic
Neutrons” CMS Internal Note 2006/014 and
Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science.
We built and tested 20 layers “WLS Fiber Embedded Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype”
F. Duruet al. “CMS HadronicEndCap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for SLHC - Cerenkov Light
Collection from Quartz Plates” , IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol 55, Issue 2, 734-740, 2008.
U. Akgunet al., "Quartz Plate Calorimeter as SLHC Upgrade to CMS HadronicEndcap Calorimeters", XIII
International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, CALOR 2008, Pavio, Italy, May 2008,
Hadronic Energy Resolution
We built and tested 20 layers “PTP Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter”
U. Akgunet al. "CMS Hadronic Calorimeter Upgrade Studies - P-Terphenyl Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype ", APS 2009, Denver, CO, USA, May 2009
B. Bilkiet al. “CMS HadronEndcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies For SuperLHC”, CALOR 2010, Beijing, China,
Hadronic Energy Resolution and Response Linearity
We can use combination as radiation hard CMS Endcap Calorimeter (EE + HE).
U. Akgunet al. “CMS HadronicEndcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for SLHC P-Terphenyl Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype'‘ IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Volume 57, Issue 2, 754-759, 2010
Electromagnetic Energy Resolution and Response Linearity
We evaporated PTP and RF sputtered ZnO over quartz plates
We showed that radiation hard light enhancement tools (P-Terphenyl and Zinc Oxide) can be used with quartz.
U. Akgunet al., "P-Terphenyl Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype", IEEENuclear Science Symposium Conference, Dresden, Germany, 19-25 October 2008
P-Terphenyl Radiation Damage
tested up to 40 MRad
PTP (red) and ZnO (green) deposited quartz plate
Produces more light than plain quartz plate.
We Develop Radiation Hard Wavelength Shifing Fibers: Quartz fibers with PTP/ZnO covered core.
We built a radiation hard WLS fiber prototype. Deposited pTp on the stripped region, on both face. Then the whole ribbon will be sandwiched between quartz plates.
We prepared a “homemade” rad-hard WLS fiber. We stripped the plastic cladding from
QP fibers for “middle 20 cm” portion of 60 cm fibers.
This unit was tested with 80 GeV electron shower. The red line show the pedestal.
With a very simple prototype we collected substantial signal.
We try to optimize the model using Geant4 simulations.
Scintillating and WLS Fibers
a) forces the frozen solid core to a continuous amorphous but nearly ordered fiber; b) keeps G negative for the reverse reaction after radiolysis, and c) prevents interactions with O2.
-30cm tube furnace for 25cm
- Pyrex vacuum burette
-Fibers placed vertically
In 5 mm diapyrex melt tube
- At ~240°C, µ<0; Liquid
from tops of fibers!
Nested pyrex tube double boiler –
Molten anthracene shown
NA = 0.43
Core Diameters: 250-750 µm
Fibers bent toward camera
Fibers cores: 250 µm–750 µm
Sensitive to 137Cs at far end.
Quant. Measurements TBD.
7 fibers pumped by Hg UV Pen Source,
With one fiber bent up to camera
Lead Vanadates doped with Iron (Fe2O3-PbO-V2O5)
Lead Vanadates doped with Copper (CuO-PbO-V2O5)