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HE Calorimeter Upgrade Studies Proposing to replace HE scintillators with quartz plates for high luminosity LHC runs. “HE UPGRADE PHASE II ISSUES” Yasar Onel. US-HE Upgrade Group: Iowa, Baylor, Fairfield, Fermilab , FIU, Maryland , Mississippi Extended US Group for HCAL Upgrades:

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HE Calorimeter Upgrade StudiesProposing to replace HE scintillators with quartz plates for high luminosity LHC runs

he upgrade phase ii issues yasar onel

“HE UPGRADE PHASE II ISSUES”Yasar Onel

US-HE Upgrade Group:

Iowa, Baylor, Fairfield, Fermilab, FIU, Maryland, Mississippi

Extended US Group for HCAL Upgrades:

Boston, Minnesota, Princeton, Virginia, Notre Dame

International Group:

Trieste, Italy

Bogazici U. Istanbul,Turkey

Cukurova U, Adana, Turkey

ITU, Istanbul, Turkey

METU,Ankara, Turkey

previous quartz plate work
PREVIOUS QUARTZ PLATE WORK

A) As a baseline, replace the scintillator tiles in the original design of the hadronicendcap calorimeter (HE) with quartz plates. Quartz is proven to be radiation hard by the radiation damage tests with electron, proton, neutron and gamma beams.

B) As an addition to a) above, deposit on the quartz plates radiation-hard scintillator films. The films include pTerphenyl(pTP) and ZnO:Ga.

C) As a baseline, develop replaceable arrangements of wavelength shifting(WLS) fibers, which have been shown to collect efficiently the Cherenkov light generated in quartz plates. The configuration with high light yield is straight—through and amenable to periodic replacement.

D) Instead of c) above, develop rad-hard WLS fibers based on a quartz core, and using multicaldded films of rad-hard scintuillator/WLS, such as pTP or doped ZnO or doped CdS.

quartz radiation damage studies
Quartz Radiation Damage Studies

Electron Irradiation Tests:

Dumanogluet al. “Radiation-hardness studies of high OH content quartz fibres irradiated with 500 MeV electrons” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 490 (2002) 444-455

Proton Irradiation Tests:

Cankocak et al. “Radiation-hardness measurements of high OH content quartz fibres irradiated with 24 GeV protons up to 1.25 Grad“ Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 585 (2008) 20–27

Neutron and Gamma Irradiation Tests:

U. Akgunet al. “Radiation Damage in Quartz Fibers

Exposed to Energetic Neutrons”

“Radiation Damage in Quartz Fibers Exposed to Energetic

Neutrons” CMS Internal Note 2006/014 and

Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science.

cherenkov light collection in quartz
Cherenkov Light Collection in Quartz
  • Good : Quartz is radiation hard.
  • Bad : We have to collect cerenkov photons. Very little light !! At fixed angle.
  • Strategy: Go deep in UV to collect Cerenkov photons.
  • We did R&D studies on
    • WLS fiber geometry
      • Cerenkov light collection, uniformity, and efficiency
    • Wrapping material reflectivity tests, Aluminum, Tyvek, HEM, Mylar.
quartz plate calorimeter with wls fibers
Quartz Plate Calorimeter with WLS Fibers

We built and tested 20 layers “WLS Fiber Embedded Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype”

F. Duruet al. “CMS HadronicEndCap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for SLHC - Cerenkov Light

Collection from Quartz Plates” , IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol 55, Issue 2, 734-740, 2008.

U. Akgunet al., "Quartz Plate Calorimeter as SLHC Upgrade to CMS HadronicEndcap Calorimeters", XIII

International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, CALOR 2008, Pavio, Italy, May 2008,

J.Phys.Conf.Ser.160:012015, 2009

Hadronic Energy Resolution

quartz plate calorimeter with p terphenyl
Quartz Plate Calorimeter with P-Terphenyl

We built and tested 20 layers “PTP Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter”

U. Akgunet al. "CMS Hadronic Calorimeter Upgrade Studies - P-Terphenyl Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype ", APS 2009, Denver, CO, USA, May 2009

B. Bilkiet al. “CMS HadronEndcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies For Super­LHC”, CALOR 2010, Beijing, China,

Hadronic Energy Resolution and Response Linearity

slide8

Quartz Plate Calo. with P-Terphenyl – EM mode

We can use combination as radiation hard CMS Endcap Calorimeter (EE + HE).

U. Akgunet al. “CMS HadronicEndcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for SLHC P-Terphenyl Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype'‘ IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Volume 57, Issue 2, 754-759, 2010

Electromagnetic Energy Resolution and Response Linearity

covering quartz plates with ptp and zno
Covering Quartz Plates with pTp and ZnO

We evaporated PTP and RF sputtered ZnO over quartz plates

investigation of radiation hard wavelength shifters
Investigation of Radiation Hard Wavelength Shifters

We showed that radiation hard light enhancement tools (P-Terphenyl and Zinc Oxide) can be used with quartz.

U. Akgunet al., "P-Terphenyl Deposited Quartz Plate Calorimeter Prototype", IEEENuclear Science Symposium Conference, Dresden, Germany, 19-25 October 2008

P-Terphenyl Radiation Damage

tested up to 40 MRad

PTP (red) and ZnO (green) deposited quartz plate

Produces more light than plain quartz plate.

he upgrade plans
HE Upgrade Plans
  • We have two “viable” options for HE Upgrade, these can also be applied to EE region with 2 cm absorber thickness.
  • Will read signal from PTP deposited plate, directly.
    • This will require radiation hard detector: Hamamatsu 7600 series, or multi channel PMT
    • The current technology of APD and SiPM is NOT enough.
  • Will use WLS fibers
    • This requires rad-hard WLS fiber, which DOES not exist.
    • We built a primitive prototype with PTP, it is promising. Need R&D on PTP, ZnO deposition on quartz fibers. Sapphire fiber and quartz capilary filled by PTP and/or Anthraceneis another option.
radiation hard wls fiber
Radiation Hard WLS Fiber

We Develop Radiation Hard Wavelength Shifing Fibers: Quartz fibers with PTP/ZnO covered core.

We built a radiation hard WLS fiber prototype. Deposited pTp on the stripped region, on both face. Then the whole ribbon will be sandwiched between quartz plates.

radiation hard wls fiber1
Radiation Hard WLS Fiber

We prepared a “homemade” rad-hard WLS fiber. We stripped the plastic cladding from

QP fibers for “middle 20 cm” portion of 60 cm fibers.

This unit was tested with 80 GeV electron shower. The red line show the pedestal.

With a very simple prototype we collected substantial signal.

We try to optimize the model using Geant4 simulations.

anthracene other pah quartz capillary scintillating wls solid fibers
Anthracene (+ other PAH) Quartz Capillary Scintillating/WLS Solid Fibers
  • Fairfield*–Iowa–Mississippi Forward Collaboration

Scintillating and WLS Fibers

  • Collaboration Continuing Goals:
    • HE upgrades: Scintillating Film Quartz Plates
    • Forward E-M calorimeter – New Glasses; SE Cal
    • Forward Lepton-Photon – SE Cal
anthracene other pah quartz capillary scintillating wls solid fibers1
Anthracene (+ other PAH) Quartz Capillary Scintillating/WLS Solid Fibers
  • The Idea: Under vacuum, fill quartz capillaries with molten PAH organic scintillators/WLS with good Raddam Resistance to form optical waveguides.
  • The confining and impervious Q-capillary:

a) forces the frozen solid core to a continuous amorphous but nearly ordered fiber; b) keeps G negative for the reverse reaction after radiolysis, and c) prevents interactions with O2.

  • Follows pioneering work by R.Ruchti et al. with liquid cores.
anthracene properties
Anthracene Properties
  • Anthracene
    • Vibrational energy dissipation
      • Reduces raddam
    • Melts: 218°C Boils: 340°C; soluble methanol
    • Densities: Solid 1.25 g/cm3 Liquid 0.97 g/cm3
    • Index: 1.595
    • Bright scintillator x2.3 of NaI;
    • emission between 350-500nm
    • Decay time: <30ns
rig vacuum tube furnace anthracene double boiler
Rig: Vacuum Tube Furnace – Anthracene“Double Boiler”

-30cm tube furnace for 25cm

Capillary fibers

-Vacuum thermometer

- Pyrex vacuum burette

-Fibers placed vertically

In 5 mm diapyrex melt tube

- At ~240°C, µ<0; Liquid

Anthracene fountains

from tops of fibers!

Nested pyrex tube double boiler –

Molten anthracene shown

25 cm anthracene core quartz capillary fibers
25 cm Anthracene Core Quartz Capillary Fibers

NA = 0.43

Core Diameters: 250-750 µm

preliminary anthracene core 25 cm fibers
Preliminary: Anthracene core 25 cm fibers

Fibers bent toward camera

Fibers cores: 250 µm–750 µm

Sensitive to 137Cs at far end.

Quant. Measurements TBD.

7 fibers pumped by Hg UV Pen Source,

With one fiber bent up to camera

slide20

The Glass Samples Produced

Lead Vanadates doped with Iron (Fe2O3-PbO-V2O5)

Lead Vanadates doped with Copper (CuO-PbO-V2O5)