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Earth Station: Global ISS Marketing Future of Human Spaceflight. ASTE 527 Space Exploration Architectures Concept Synthesis Studio Team Project, Fall 2010, Astronautical Engineering Department, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California.

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Earth Station:

Global ISS Marketing

Future of Human Spaceflight

ASTE 527 Space Exploration Architectures Concept Synthesis Studio

Team Project, Fall 2010, Astronautical Engineering Department,

Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California


Earth Station: Global ISS Marketing – Future of Human Spaceflight

ISS Expansion Utilizing Bigelow Modules

Krystal Puga

ASTE 527

stepping stone
Stepping Stone

The ISS should be used as a global first step towards follow-on space endeavors:

(i.e. Module design Test beds, Space tourism , Co-orbiting stations, Moon vacations, etc. )

  • ISS Features:
  • 12 yrs of successful space operation
  • Existing research laboratory for experiments in: Microgravity, medicine, physiology, physics, biology, etc…

Estimated ISS Cost: $35-160 Billion

De-orbit timeframe:

ISS life extended through 2020 and conceivably to 2025 or 2028

The current features and resources of the ISS need to be utilized to the fullest extent possible to maximize the international investments already made, and global investments being actively sought.

concept overview
Concept Overview
  • Use Bigelow Inflatable space modules to expand the ISS. Two segments will be added:
    • ISS Commercial Test bed Segment
      • Crew Habitat test bed for future space hotel designs
    • ISS National Lab Segment
      • Dedicated Earth Observation & Hardware testing laboratory

Expected Execution Time Frame: 2015-2017


Concept execution is dependent on the use of existing or nearly completed technology with only minor updates

bigelow modules bm
Bigelow Modules (BM)
  • High TRL:
  • Genesis Model has two successful on-orbit demonstrations
  • Interface Compatibility:
  • Modules have been designed with both a Soyuz Docking System and the new NASA LIDS docking system
  • Cost Comparison:
  • $100M vs $500M* for Node 3
    • * Price Included US support of the Soyuz 2

High module maturity, availability for testing in 2014/2015 timeframe, & potential cost savings make BM a viable near term option


ISS Commercial Test bed Segment

(Crew Habitat test bed for future space hotel designs)

current living quarters on the iss
Current Living Quarters on the ISS
  • Insufficient/limited living space on the ISS
    • TeSS (Temporary Sleep Stations) [1 station]
    • Crew Quarters (CQs) [6 quarters]
  • Previous efforts to add a dedicated habitat module, have been cancelled
    • Habitation Module (HAB) (Program cancelled in 2002)
    • ISS TransHAB (Proposed launch date was 2004)

Crew Quarter



iss crew habitat module testbed
ISS Crew Habitat Module Testbed
  • Commercial Benefit:
    • Test the configuration and operations of the Bigelow Modules for integration into space hotel design
    • ISS can provide the necessary resources to execute testing (i.e. Power, Crew). Potential cost savings to Bigelow by not having to develop the infrastructure to properly test modules.
  • Benefit to the Future of Human Spaceflight:
    • Test Bed for Engineering and Human Factors, for evolving safe and reliable habitats for extended stay utilization.
      • Research areas include : Extended Duration Human Physiology, Health Maintenance and Productivity in Microgravity
necessary modifications to bm
Necessary Modifications to BM

Interior Design Requirements

  • Current Crew Quarter (CQ) are not designed for extended stay and are not intended to be used for more than a couple hours a day.
  • To serve as a test bed for extended duration residences research, Modules need to be designed to simulate terrestrial habitats in function, comfort, reliability
    • Larger private rooms, social areas , user friendly kitchen & bathrooms, single function rooms

Space Hotel based on the TransHab “ Out of this World: The New Field of Space Architecture


ISS National Lab Segment

(Dedicated Earth Observation & Hardware Testing Laboratory)

history of leo space station earth sensing
History of LEO Space Station Earth Sensing
  • MIR Space Station was used for experimentalEarth Sensing activities using the MOMS-2P (Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner)
  • Images taken by the MOMS-2P were compared to images taken from Landsat TM
  • MOMS-2P Spatial Resolution was 3X better than Landsat

Low ISS Altitude resulted in an improved Spatial Resolution

current remote sensing efforts
Current Remote Sensing Efforts
  • NASA experiment studying the thermosphere and & Ionosphere
    • Payloads are located on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility ( JEMEF)
    • RAIDS: The Remote Atmospheric & Ionospheric System
    • HICO: Hyperspectral Imager for the Costal Ocean
      • Mission inception March 28, 2009
  • Crew Earth Observations
    • Have demonstrated spatial resolutions of less than 6m, comparable to some commercial remote sensing satellites

Image of Aswan High Dam, Egypt. Nikon F5 camera, 35-mm film, 379 km altitude, calculated spatial resolution = 5.98m/pixel

Despite current efforts the ISS is not being fully utilized for Earth Remote Sensing

earth sensing lab features
Earth Sensing Lab Features
  • Multiple nadir pointing viewports for instrumentation
  • External Platforms for space environmental qualification/testing of Spacecraft hardware
  • ISS will provide all supporting life systems for instruments
  • All payloads/instrumentation will be serviced by ISS crew
  • Viewports and external platforms will be available for leasing opportunities
    • Commercial: Qualification/testing of hardware for civil/defense/commercial satellites
    • Educational: University Payload Testing
    • Scientific Community: Earth Remote Sensing of Earth’s:
      • Atmospheric, Climate, Ocean, Vegetation , etc..
earth sensing lab features1
Earth Sensing Lab Features
  • External platforms will serve as an “elevator” that can be accessed from inside the module.
    • Similar to the EF on JEM: Advantages include
      • Will not require the use of a robotic arm or EVA to service or install Hardware
      • Will allow the testing of smaller S/C hardware compared to JEM-EF
  • Will utilize existing Cupola design
  • Mounting structures will need to be designed to hold instruments
  • Total possible cupola capacity = 42 instruments
enhanced earth sensing conops
Enhanced Earth Sensing ConOps

ISS Earth Observation Lab can be linked to existing meteorological or EO S/C in GEO for enhanced data sets.

Earth Remote Sensing Satellites

Scientific Community

iss earth observation limitations
ISS Earth Observation Limitations
  • Instruments need to be designed to mount to motion control platforms
  • Optical systems need to capture data at a sufficient speed to eliminate the effects of relative ground motion (with a shutter speed of 1/500 s expected blur due to relative ground motion would be ~ 14.6m)
  • Low ISS orbit only allows for earth observations between 51.6° N & S Latitudes


economical advantages
Economical Advantages

In cases where the ISS orbit limitations can be overcome it may be more economical to use the ISS as a instrument platform and avoid the high cost of a GEO Spacecraft

* Cost estimates from Congressional Budget Office

  • ISS will benefit from this expansion in the following ways:
    • ISS Commercial Test bed Segment
      • Will add needed living space to ISS
      • Opportunity to research both physiological effects and operational configurations for long term space residency
      • Cooperation with Private Sector Company Bigelow
    • ISS National Lab Segment
      • Dedicated Earth Observation lab, will increase the current viewing surface area (only 2 available, Cupola in Node 3 and a 20 in optically perfect window in Destiny module)
      • Commercial business model that can generate revenue through leasing opportunities
      • Potential streamlining of space experimentation, and earth observation
  • Technology can be readily available in the next 5-10 years
further studies
Further Studies
  • General Expansion
  • Current ISS capability to accommodate additional modules
  • Possible berthing locations
  • Earth Sensing and Space Environment Testing Laboratory
  • Multi Sensor Interference (signal interference )
  • Contamination Control
  • External Port, re-pressurization mechanism and operations
  • Cupola configuration to ensure nadir pointing FOVs
  • Crew Habitation Test bed
  • Optimal module configurations
  • LIDS)
  • (MOMS-2P on MIR and LANDSAT comparison)
  • of GEOEYE satellite)
  • (Congressional Budget Office Cost of NASA Projects)
  • Landsat 7 costs)
  • Cost of Node 3)
  • Howe, A. Scott., and Brent Sherwood. Out of This World: the New Field of Space Architecture. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2009. Print.
universal docking system
Universal Docking System
  • Utilize NASA’s Low Impact Docking System ( LIDS) already in production
  • Will need to replace the Androgynous Peripheral Attach System ( APAS-89) already in use on the ISS
  • LIDS has already been designed into the Bigelow Modules
  • LIDS is smaller, lighter, and requires less contact force to engage its docking mechanisms than the APAS-89
  • Will be attached to the PMS (Pressurized Matting Adapters ) used on the CBM (Common Berthing Mechanism)