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Alternative Access Technologies Peter Elford [email protected] Agenda. Changing Access Needs Access Technologies Cable, DSL Wireless, Ethernet, PON Powerline. ISP2. Comp A. ISP1. Comp B. Wireless Headend. Cable Headend. DSLAM. Switch. Cable. Wireless. ADSL. Other. Wireless.

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Alternative access technologies peter elford pelford@cisco com

AlternativeAccessTechnologiesPeter [email protected]


Agenda
Agenda

  • Changing Access Needs

  • Access Technologies

    • Cable, DSLWireless,Ethernet, PONPowerline


Access technologies

ISP2

Comp A

ISP1

Comp B

Wireless

Headend

Cable

Headend

DSLAM

Switch

Cable

Wireless

ADSL

Other

Wireless

Ethernet

?

Access Technologies

IP Backbone

ISDN

POTS

Frame

ATM

3


Emerging market for dedicated high speed access is expanding accelerating

Branch Enterprise

Small-Medium

Enterprise

Telecommuter

Residential

Emerging Market for Dedicated High Speed Access is Expanding & Accelerating

Migration from PSTN/ISDN to

High Speed Always On

Network Access

Dialup

PSTN

ISDN

ISP

and/or

Enterprise

Cable and xDSL and Wireless and …


Motivation

Incumbent infrastructure suppliers looking to leverage investment in local loop/cable

Cable TV Operators and Telephony providers

Goal: Add new services using existing plant

Driven by: Internet and New World trends

New entrants with little or no legacy infrastructure

Motivation

Data

Video

Total TrafficVolume

Today

Voice

Time


A hypothetical proposition
A Hypothetical proposition investment in local loop/cable

Future Application Need: Telepresence

Assume:

1 half sphere/per eye

24 bit colour

30 frames per second

2,400 dots per inch

10.4 billion pixels

One telepresence session requires15 Terabits/second (uncompressed)

Source: Level(3) Communications


Cable

Cable investment in local loop/cable

www.cisco.com

7


Hfc network architecture

Node investment in local loop/cable

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

HFC Network Architecture

6 MHz

HBO

CNN

ESPN

Hub

Headend

Hub

Hub

COAX

Tap

Drop

Settop

TV


Cable data system schematic

Subscriber investment in local loop/cable

Cable Modem

10 Base T

Internet

Universal

Broadband

Router

Cable Data System Schematic

Headend / Hub

Off-Air

Channels

Optical

Transmitters

Receivers

Descramblers

Scramblers

RF

Amplifiers

Tap

Satellite

Channels

RF Combiner

AM & Digital

Modulators

Optical

Nodes


Mcns summary

Share Physical Media investment in local loop/cable

Downstream - 27 Mbps (shared)Upstream - 2Mbps (shared)

Link MAC Protocol

Ethernet on MPEGSecurity

Cable ModemAuto-configuration

QoS

MCNS Summary

The

Network

Tap

Cable

Headend

Router

Cable Modem

Ethernet Port

MCNS – Multimedia Cable Network Specifications

DOCSIS - Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification


Cable headend router
Cable HeadEnd Router investment in local loop/cable

  • Headend Router

    • Integrated cable modem headend and router

    • Cable interfaces, backend trunking

Based on Highend Router

Range of RF Cable Modem Cards

- Upstream and Downstream


Cable subscriber modems
Cable Subscriber Modems investment in local loop/cable

  • MCNS Subscriber Cable Modems

    • Varying requirements

      • Residential – BridgesSOHO, SMB – Routers


xDSL investment in local loop/cable

www.cisco.com

13


x investment in local loop/cable

Varies Depending on Technology ...

DSL

Digital Subscriber Loop

xDSL

Today - Telephone

Tomorrow ...

Central

Office

(Telephone

Exchange)

RemoteLocation

Subscriber

Loop


Xdsl physical characteristics
xDSL Physical Characteristics investment in local loop/cable

Max Data RateDown/Up Links

Distancekm

VDSL - Very High Rate

52 Mbps/2.0Mbps

.9

ADSL - Asymmetric

8 Mbps/1.0Mbps

5.5

HDSL - High Bit Rate

2.0 Mbps/2.0 Mbps

4.6

SDSL - Symmetric

784kbp/784Kbps

6.9

IDSL - ISDN

144Kbps/144Kbps

5.5


Adsl architecture

Connections investment in local loop/cable Delivered as

ATM PVC’s

ADSL Architecture

Content Network

Consumers

Backbone

Network

Telephone

Exchange

ISP (a, b, c)

ATMCore

DSLAM

Aggregator

IPCore

Corporate Gateway (x, y, z)

16


Adsl solution
ADSL Solution investment in local loop/cable

ADSL

CPE

DSLAM

Aggregator

DSL

ATM

Ethernet

PPPoE(oA)


Wireless

Wireless investment in local loop/cable

www.cisco.com

18


Wireless technology
Wireless Technology investment in local loop/cable

Enterprise,

Campus, and

Residential

Fixed

Mobile

Broadband

2G

Cellular

3G

Cellular


Enterprise wireless
Enterprise Wireless investment in local loop/cable

  • Wireless LANs and Bridges

    • 802.11, shared 11Mbps, 500m – 40km

  • GSM to VoIP Gateways

VoIP

IP

PSTN


Fixed wireless issues
Fixed Wireless Issues investment in local loop/cable

  • Reach

  • Frequency Spectrum Availability

  • Line of Sight (LOS) vs. non-LOS

  • Point to Point vs. Point to Multipoint


Non los wireless

investment in local loop/cable

Paths

Base Station

Subscriber

Non LOS Wireless

  • VOFDM

    Vector Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

  • Leverages multiple received signals to recreate original transmission

  • Enables greater coverage and substantially reduces LoS limitations


Broadband wireless solutions
Broadband Wireless Solutions investment in local loop/cable

Internet

Broadband

“Last Mile”

Access

PSTN

  • Shared 10-22Mb using Cable MCNS MAC

  • 3.4Ghz (licensed), 5.7Ghz (unlicensed)

Wireless Access

Router

Wireless Headend Router


Ethernet

Ethernet investment in local loop/cable

www.cisco.com

24


Gigabit ethernet can it break the metro area bottleneck
Gigabit Ethernet: Can it Break the Metro Area Bottleneck ? investment in local loop/cable

“Business customers and service providers should be aware that a new breed of carrier is emerging. These new carriers are taking Ethernet technology and extending it from the corporate LAN to metro and wide area networks.”

October 31, 2000


Why ethernet
Why Ethernet ? investment in local loop/cable

  • Very high performance

  • Flexible

    • Sub 10E, E, FE, GE, 10GE …

    • User configurable

  • Really cheap

  • Easily deployed

  • Matches user requirements

    • Transport IP packets

  • Easily combined with DWDM


Bredbandsbolaget
Bredbandsbolaget investment in local loop/cable

Home

Residential

Area

  • 10E to home @ ~A$40/month

  • GE backbone

  • 750,000 users within CY2000

  • Portal Centric (Full Service)

City

Country


Cogent
Cogent investment in local loop/cable

FE

Long Haul DWDM

(128 x Oc192)

GE

GE

Oc48

Oc48


The opportunity cost of laying a new last mile
The Opportunity Cost of investment in local loop/cable Laying a New Last Mile

“… this technology could bedisruptive to thetraditional carriers ...”

  • Close match to Enterprise Networks

  • A service provider service at least as high in performance as the Intranet

  • Foundation for many other services

    • Portals, Hosting, ASP’s, VoIP, Video …

October 31, 2000


Passive optical networks
Passive Optical Networks investment in local loop/cable

OLT – Optical Line Termination

ONT – Optical Network Termination

Passive Splitter

Ethernet PON (EPON) and ATM PON (APON)

Central Office

Distribution Network

Subscriber Premises

Voice

Data

Video

1

Voice

Data

Video

Splitter

ONT

OLT

Fibre Feeder

Fibre Drop

32


Pon operation

A investment in local loop/cable

B

A

C

B

C

A

B

A

C

B

A

C

C

B

A

C

PON Operation

A

ONU-A

A

  • Downstream/upstream on different wavelengths

  • Downstream broadcast; ONU’s select packets

  • Upstream using TDMA; synchronised by OLT

B

C

Discard

1310nm

B

B

OLT

ONU-B

B

1550nm

A

C

Discard

C

ONU-C

C

A

B

Discard


Powerline

PowerLine investment in local loop/cable

www.cisco.com

32


Power distribution network

Internet investment in local loop/cable

Power Distribution Network

High

Voltage

Transmission

Equipment

CPE

Phone(s)

Utility Data

Network

(Fibre)

“Copper-based” power

distribution network

Distribution Transformer

PC

Low Voltage

Last 100m

In-Premise

Last Inch

Medium Voltage Grid

Last Mile


Observations

Observations investment in local loop/cable

www.cisco.com

34


The need for speed
The Need for Speed investment in local loop/cable

  • Technology, products and standards definitely driven by US market and regulations

    • Wireless spectrum licensing is a per country game

    • But US-model is not exclusive (or 100% relevant)

  • Vigorous competition between cable and xDSL

  • Rest of the World varies

    • As much regulation as infrastructure or technology

  • Fundamentally changes network design

    • No last mile challenges …


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