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Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks. Simone Stumpf Computer Science S.Stumpf@cs.ucl.ac.uk x33039 http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/S.Stumpf. Structure of talk. What is evidence? The problem of evidence - an example Argumentation Theory Fields of argumentation Analytic Dialectic Rhetoric

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evidence and argumentation frameworks

Evidence and Argumentation Frameworks

Simone Stumpf

Computer Science

S.Stumpf@cs.ucl.ac.uk

x33039

http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/S.Stumpf

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

structure of talk
Structure of talk
  • What is evidence?
  • The problem of evidence - an example
  • Argumentation Theory
  • Fields of argumentation
    • Analytic
    • Dialectic
    • Rhetoric
  • Perelman’s New Rhetoric
  • Current areas of interest

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

what is evidence
What is evidence?
  • something that furnishes proof
  • something submitted to a tribunal to ascertain the truth of a matter

(Merriam-Webster)

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

the problem of evidence the damilola taylor case
The problem of evidence - the Damilola Taylor case

The expert witnesses

The jury

The star witnesses

The CPS

The police

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

argumentation theory
Argumentation Theory
  • Argumentation
    • Reasoned discourse to reach a standpoint
  • Argument
    • A discourse involving statements
    • A statement/premise proffered in a discourse
  • Argumentation Theory
    • Study of how people argue (or should argue)

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

use of argumentation
Use of argumentation
  • Design process
    • Teams
    • Indivdiuals
  • Decision Support/ Expert Systems
    • Capture human reasoning
    • Enhance reasoning
  • Role of evidence in these instances
    • Proof?
    • Truth?

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

fields of argumentation

Analytic

Rhetoric

Dialectic

Proof

Validity

True premises lead to a true conclusion

Critical assessment

Uncertainty

Premises that cannot be proven true lead to a conclusion which is probably true

Persuasion

Acceptance by audience

A conclusion is reached if acceptable premises are supplied

Fields of argumentation

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

analytic
Analytic
  • Evidence is a true statement used with inference rules
    • “rational”
    • “objective”
    • “measurable”
    • “timeless”

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

analytic application
Analytic application
  • Fallacies - realisation that the way humans argue is not like formal logic
  • Informal Logic
    • Extensions to formal models (modal, non-monotonic, etc.)
    • Adopted in knowledge-based systems to simulate/automate reasoning

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

dialectic
Dialectic
  • Evidence is a probable statement in support of a conclusion
    • Evidence testing - proponent and opponent
    • Need to discharge opponent’s challenges to “win” argument
      • Relevance
      • Weight
      • Links
    • Agree to play by certain ground rules of argument
      • Field-independent structure
      • Field-dependent acceptable content
      • Phases and roles within argument

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

dialectic application
Dialectic application
  • Toulmin structure
  • Argumentation-based (visual) tools
    • Design Rationale (IBIS, Questmap, DRL, DRAMA, etc.)
    • Critical thinking (Araucaria, Belvedere, AAA, etc.)
    • Logic of Argumentation (medical decision support)
  • Improve and support testing process

Data

Qualifier, Conclusion

Warrant

Rebuttal

Backing

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

rhetoric
Rhetoric
  • Evidence is a statement that an arguer uses to persuade an audience to accept a conclusion
    • Evidence is deliberately used (or not used)
    • Important how and in what order it is presented
    • Success vs. truth!

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

perelman s new rhetoric
Perelman’s New Rhetoric
  • Presence and interpretation
  • Premises
    • Facts, presumptions, truths
    • Values and loci
  • Argumentation schemes
    • Association
      • Quasi-logical schemes (transitivity, whole-parts, by sacrifice, probabilities, etc.)
      • Schemes based on the structure of reality (causal, coexistence, etc.)
      • Schemes establishing the structure of reality (example, analogy, metaphor, etc.)
    • Dissociation

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

perelman new rhetoric
Perelman’ New Rhetoric
  • Arguer needs to adapt argument to audience
  • Beliefs of audiences of both premises and arg schemes important
  • Different audiences - different arguments
    • Particular audience
    • Specialised audience
    • Universal audience

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

rhetoric application
Rhetoric application
  • Descriptive framework
    • Different conception of fallacies
    • Process of persuasion
    • Analysis of audience(s)
  • “persuasion machines”
    • Natural language generation

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03

current areas of interest
Current areas of interest
  • Design process
    • Using rhetoric to analyse communication in design teams
    • Design rationale and extensions
    • Identification of problems in argumentation process
  • Audiences and what persuades them
    • Learning between organisations
  • Knowledge acquisition/management
    • Comparison of expert and database “evidence”
    • Knowledge-Based Systems

Evidence Mtg 21 Feb 03