UNIT 9. Vocabulary Types of pollution Environmental effects Grammar and functions Expressing degree Graphs & Figures Revision of the grammar structures. LISTENING. 1- Environmental pollution is the CONTAMINATION OF THE AIR, LAND AND WATER CAUSED BY HUMAN PRODUCTS .
UNIT 9 Vocabulary • Types of pollution • Environmental effects Grammar and functions • Expressingdegree • Graphs & Figures • Revision of the grammar structures
LISTENING 1-Environmental pollution is the CONTAMINATIONOF THE AIR, LAND AND WATER CAUSED BY HUMAN PRODUCTS. 2-a) CHEMICALSRELEASEDBYINDUSTRIALPROCESSES b)EXHAUST FROM GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES LIKE AUTOMOBILES, c) REFUSE AND GASES EMITTED BY FACTORIES, d)sewage and GARBAGE DISPOSED OF BY CITIES, e) PESTICIDES USED IN AGRICULTURE. 3-THE AMOUNT OF RELEASED POLLUTANTS. 4- a) CONSERVATION EFFORTS, SUCH AS RECYCLING b) NEW TECHNOLOGIES ALLOW INDUSTRY TO RELEASE FEWER POLLUTANTS INTO THE ENVIRONMENT. 5-The long-term effects of pollution are not yet PRECISELYknown, but it is WIDELYbelieved by scientists that GLOBAL WARMING - THE HEATING OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE AS A RESULT OF THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT is a threat to most forms of life on the planet .
POSITION OF ADVERBS • at the beginning of a sentence: • Unfortunately, recycling plastics has proved difficult. • Electric motors are based on electromagnetism. Similarly, generators use electromagnetism to produce electricity • at the end of a sentence • Harmful waste should be separated and treated carefully • All biological waste must be disposed of safely • Most frequently in the middle of a sentence ( MANNER,FREQUENCY, DEGREE,) (after TO BE, before OTHER VERBS, if in PASSIVE = before PP) • CO2 negatively affects the environment • recycling centers do not often recycle plastic grocery bags • e-waste recycling is an industry that hardly existed ten years ago • Ferrous metal scrap is usually sent to a local steel mill for recycling • residues sent for recycling do not alwaysnecessarily contain metals • DEGREE ADV: BEFORE AN ADJECTIVE • Many other countries have significantly better glass recycling rates
EXERCISE DEGREE A 1 We installed a complete new system We installed a completely new system 2 It was a really enjoyable film It was a real enjoyable film 3 The product is full guaranteed for a year The product is fully guaranteed for a year 4 The new car was a closely guarded secret The new car was a close guarded secret 5 He's a highly paid executive He's a high paid executive
ADJ/ADV • Quantity(+N):all/every/each| most|many/much| some, several| (a) few/(a) little | no (+N) /none/not any • Frequency(+VB):always|usual(ly), normal(ly), general(ly)|often, frequent(ly)| sometimes, occasional(ly)| rare(ly), seldom, hardly/ scarcely ever| never • Certainty(+VB):certain(ly),undoubtedly, absolutely| probably, likely to| possibly,perhaps,maybe| Uncertainly,unlikely to| certain(ly) not, definite(ly) not • Degree(+VB/Adj):very + ADJ. Significantly, substantially, dramatically, strongly, widely, mostly, greatly,highly, too, rather, fairly, quite slightly, hardly, scarcely New sitesforwindfarmsare likely to be mostly offshore The data are mostly recorded digitally
COMMON ADVERBS OF DEGREE POSITION: before ADJ/ADV ormain VB (PP) ADV + VB: Significantly, mostly, greatly, strongly, substantially, dramatically, hardly, scarcely = VERY + ADJ • This allows the weight of the system to be significantly reduced • Opticalpropertiesstrongly depend on the specific design details • Designerstoday can hardly afford to ignore the need to develop their products onsustainableprinciples Likely to /unlikely to • New sitesforwindfarmsare likely to be mostly offshore • Helium turbines are unlikely to appear earlier than 20 yearsfromnow Enough: ADJ/VB+ Enough • GPS signals are sensitive enoughto detect earthquake • These forces can be enoughto activelymovesmallobjects Enough + Noun: Every hour, enough solar radiation reaches the earth to meet the entire annual energy demand of the world’s population
EXERCISE DEGREE B • Plant and animal life can be greatly affected by global warming • He's a highlyqualified engineer • It was a badlywritten report and it needed a lot of corrections • He presented a wellstructured report • Supercharger engines achieve extremelyhigh performance • Lignite’s energy content is rather low • Wind power is likelyto be the most widelyused renewable energy source in the future • Stacked solar cells significantlyincrease the efficiency of solar cells • With a better control of CO2 emissions global warming would neverhave increased • Simply throwing trash into the recycling bin hardlydoes anything to reduce rubbish
TRANSLATION • Industrial and domestic pollutionHAVE/HAS RISEN/INCREASED IN THE LAST 50 YEARS. • Industrial air pollution includes the so-called “greenhouse gases”, LIKE/SUCH AS CARBON DIOXIDE and CFCs … . • BESIDES/IN ADDITION TO THESE GASES, we must not forget sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, • WHICH RESULT IN/GIVE RISE TO ACID RAIN. • The largest single cause of industrial air pollution is the electricity industry, AS/SINCE ALL FOSSIL FUELS PRODUCE, AT LEAST, CARBON DIOXIDE. • NEW TECHNOLOGIES ARE BEING APPLIED in a few places in order to minimize the effect of dangerous gas emissions, • but these technologies are still very expensive and WOULD MAKE/CAUSE THE PRICE OF ELECTRICITY Ø/TO RISE/INCREASE .
TRANSLATION • Two important causes of water pollution are ACID RAIN AND THERMAL POLLUTION. • Land pollution is also an environmental THREAT • IT ALSO TAKES PLACE/HAPPENS/OCCURS WHEN THE INDUSTRIAL WASTE is buried or ….. • Usually, …but, AS WE HAVE SEEN, …, • and … UNLESS WE CONTRIBUTE to reduce global pollution AS MUCH AS WE CAN.
VIDEO: TYPES OF POLLUTIONAir pollution: 1:45-2:20 • Main causes: TOXIC GASES & EXHAUSTS THAT ARE LED OUT INTO THE AIR • Produced by: • INDUSTRIES • VOLCANOS • JET PLANES • AUTOMOBILES • FOTEST FIRES • BURNING OF GARBAGE • Consequences: CONTAIN MANY HARMFUL GASES THAT CAUSE • DISEASES IN HUMAN BEINGS • DESTRUCTION OF VEGETATION • DAMAGE TO THE STRUCTURES ON EARTH • CAN ALSO FORM ACID RAIN
VIDEO: TYPES OF POLLUTIONWater pollution: 2:20-2:55 • Main causes: EFFLUENTS LED INTO WATER BODIES FROM • INDUSTRIES • SEWAGE FROM TOWNS & CITIES • WASHING CLOTHES & CATTLE IN WATER BODIES • RESIDUES OF FERTILIZERS & PESTICIDES CARRIED INTO WATER BODIES DURING RAIN The list of pollutants can be quite long • OIL SPILL IN THE OCEANS HARMS MARINE LIFE
VIDEO: TYPES OF POLLUTIONLand pollution: 2:55-4:22 • Main sources: HEAPS OF SOLID WASTE FROM • HOUSES, CATTLE SHEDS, INDUSTRIES, AGRICULTURAL FIELDS • It includes: • HAZARDOUS WASTE • GLASS • FRUIT & VEGETABLE WASTE • DEAD BODIES OF ANIMALS • OLD CLOTHES, PAPER, PLASTIC BOTTLES, CANS • EXCRETA, CHEMICALS, WOOD PIECES • Consequences: • THE HEAPS OF SOLID WASTE PROVIDE BREEDING GROUND FOR GERMS • IN ADDITION TO SPOILING THE BEAUTY AND SURROUNDINGS THEY EMIT FOUL SMELL • Solutions: CONTROLLING LAND POLLUTION. WASTE DISPOSAL DONE CAREFULLY & SCIENTIFICALLY. IT DEPENDS ON THE KIND OF SOLID WASTE: • CONSTRUCTING MATERIAL IS BURIED IN LAND FILLS • PLASTIC, TIN CANS, METAL SCRAP, PAPER MUST BE RECYCLED • PLANT & HOUSEHOLD ORGANIC MATERIAL SHOULD BE TURNED INTO MANURE • BIOGAS CAN BE OBTAINED FROM BIODEGRADABLE WASTE • WASTE FROM HOSPITAL & NURSING HOMES SHOULD BE BURNT IN INCINERATORS
VIDEO: TYPES OF POLLUTION Soil pollution: 4:20-4:57 • Difference with air pollution: LOCALIZED PHENOMENON (AIR & WATER POLLUTION SPREADS TO LONG DISTANCES) • The two main reasons for soil pollution are: • POLLUTANTS WASHED DOWN FROM THE ATMOSPHERE BECAUSE OF RAIN • INSECTICIDES AND PESTICIDES APPLIED TO THE CROPS THIS ALTERS THE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF THE SOIL Noise pollution: 4:57-6:00 • What is noise?: ANY UNWANTED SOUND • Unit of measurement:DECIBEL (DB) • Examples: THE LOWEST SOUND = 1 db, A ROCKET TAKING OFF = 180 db. NORMAL TALK= 60db • Consequences: PRODUCE ADVERSE EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEINGS & OTHER ANIMAL LIFE • Which two aspects of noise are injurious for health? LOUDNESS and DURATION OF NOISE • Other consequences: ACUTE DAMAGE TO THE EAR DRUM, DEAFNESS, LOWERS EFFICIENCY OF WORK, DISTURBS SLEEP, IRRABILITY Thermal pollution: 6:00-6:25 • What is thermal pollution?: RELEASE OF HEATED GASES OR WATER REPEATEDLY INTO THE ENVIRONMENT, INCLUDING WATER BODIES • Consequences: • IF RELEASED IN THE ATMOSPHERE THEY WARM UP THE AIR IN THAT AREA • IF RELEASED IN WATER BODIES THEY KILL THE AQUATIC LIFE
LISTENING: GREENHOUSE EFFECT • A greenhouse is a building whose sides and roof are made of glass so that the temperature inside is magnified. And it is used to grow plants that need high temperatures. • These changes result from increasing the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, thus raising the surface temperature of the earth. And this is known as the “Greenhouse Effect”. • since 1860, with a sharp increase since 1958. • The main reason is the burning of fossil fuels. • by about 15% -from about 290 to about 340 parts per million. • about 0.032%
LISTENING: GREENHOUSE EFFECT • incoming sunlight consists of many wavelengths, including some very dangerous ones. • But ozone, water vapour and CO2 destroy the harmful wavelengths. So what reaches the earth is visible light. It is absorbed and reradiated into the atmosphere as longer wavelength infrared (IR) radiation, or heat, as the earth cools. • This IR radiation is absorbed by CO2. • The CO2 then radiates a portion of the absorbed heat energy back to the earth, to warm the atmosphere. • Like the glass in a greenhouse, the CO2 in the atmosphere acts as a one-way filter that allows visible light to enter the Earth’s atmosphere, but prevents longer wavelength heat radiation from leaving. • Assuming that energy is arriving from the sun at a constant rate, then as the level of CO2 increases, the average surface temperature of the Earth should rise. • in 1863, but it was taken as a serious matter in 1956. • a projected increase in CO2 to 375 parts per million in the year 2000 could cause the average air temperature to increase by about 0.5ºC.
VIDEOACID RAIN PARAGRAPH 1 • they are threatened by a huge ecological disaster • the great forests are now dead or dying • 30% • the future of salmon and trout fishing is threatened • More than 4,000 • acid rain PARAGRAPH 2 • All fossil fuels, that is coal, oil and gas contain sulphur • when these are burnt, such as in power stations or motor vehicles • This sulphuric acid goes up into the air with the exhaust fumes and sooner or later it must fall back to earth • people who live in, near power stations notice that their cars rust quickly or that their masonry gets worn away • It is transported as far as Scandinavia PARAGRAPH 3 • it damages vehicles and buildings, but it also has serious ecological effects • this was due to the acidification of the lakes, • there was so much sulphuric acid in the rain that the lakes themselves became acid which killed the fish
VIDEOACID RAIN PARAGRAPH 4 • Acid rain also affects trees • In Czechoslovakia in the 60’s trees began to die and now there are large areas of former forest which consist of only dead trees • in the late 70s • many forest areas are dying and some are already dead • electric power stations • laws requiring their power stations to build filter installations • prevent the acid getting out into the air • that the chimneys be built taller so that the pollution is more distributed • it improves our air in our cities but it distributes the pollution further afield, so that forests in Scandinavia get affected PARAGRAPH 5 • the introduction of lead-free petrol • motor vehicles • it would be possible to build exhaust filters • prevent the release of acid • with lead in the petrol • because it prevents the filter mechanism from working PARAGRAPH 6 • some of the forests are already too badly affected to be saved, but there are a lot more forests which are slightly affected, and if action was taken now, then they perhaps could be saved. • Our forests and lakes are more than just places for relaxation and leisure. They are an essential part of the ecological balance which keeps our planet alive. If the problem is not faced very soon, it may be too late
EXPRESSING OPINION AGREEING DISAGREEING In my opinion… Personally, I think that… I'd suggest that… I (strongly)believe that… I'm convinced that... As far as I'm concerned… I'd like to point out that… What I mean is… I'm pretty sure that I agree with you on this point SO DO I However… / On the contrary… Yes, but don't you think… I'm afraid I have to disagree. Don't you think it would be better... I don't agree with ….. That's not entirely true because …. I don't think that... The problem with that point of view is that... NEITHER DO I