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Slohvac: An HVAC Savvy Sloan?. Nick Gayeski 4.427J – HVAC L. Glicksman, L. Norford. Outline. Building Design Building Basics Solar Shading Building Envelope Heating and Cooling Loads HVAC System Design Displacement Ventilation Natural Ventilation. S. Building Basics.

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Slohvac an hvac savvy sloan

Slohvac: An HVAC Savvy Sloan?

Nick Gayeski

4.427J – HVAC

L. Glicksman, L. Norford


Outline
Outline

  • Building Design

    • Building Basics

    • Solar Shading

    • Building Envelope

  • Heating and Cooling Loads

  • HVAC System Design

    • Displacement Ventilation

    • Natural Ventilation


Building basics

S

Building Basics

  • Faculty Clusters in Corner Buildings, Classrooms/Large Conference Rooms in Central Buildings

  • 230,000 GSF roughly satisfies Sloan and E60 space requirements

  • Long East-West Axis and Shading Minimize Direct Solar Gains

  • Atrium Provides Diffuse Daylight

  • Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation supplemented by wind-driven ventilation and solar chimneys

50’

100’

S

River


Solar shading

5’

9’

Altitude > 58°

Solar Shading

4.6’

3’

26.5° tilt

Azimuth > 100°

  • South Overhang

  • Blocks Direct Sun from 10 to 2 solar time in mid-summer

  • East and West Shading

  • Block Direct Sun after 9 (East) and before 4 (West) solar time in mid-summer


Building envelope
Building Envelope

Windows – Optimize Based on Orientation

  • Double-Skin Outside Vented Facade on East and West Reduce Solar Gains

  • Double-Pane, Argon Filled Windows Used Throughout

  • Low-e Windows on North Façade

  • Clear Windows on South Façade

    Walls – High Thermal Mass and Insulation

  • 6” Concrete

  • 8 cm of EPS Insulation

  • Gypsum Board


3 rd floor design heating and cooling
3rd Floor Design Heating and Cooling

Cooling Design

  • Consumes 3,155 kWh on Peak Summer Day

  • Peak Load ~ 218 kW at 2 pm

    Heating Design

  • Consumes 3,150 kWh on Peak Winter Day

  • Peak Load ~ 182 kW at 10 am

    Both ~ 286 kWh/m^2-yr for 365 Consecutive Peak Days

    Peak Flow Rates

  • Summer at 2 pm - 23.5 m^3/s or 50,000 cfm

  • Winter at 10 am - 25.2 m^3/s or 53,500 cfm


Mixed mode system
Mixed-Mode System

Mode 1: Buoyancy and Wind-Driven Natural Ventilation

Mode 2: Displacement Ventilation

Return

Office

Circulation/Support

Office

Supply

S

North-South Cross Section


Vav all air displacement ventilation

Return

Exhaust

Outdoor Air

F

HC

CC

Supply

Steam

HWS

DM

DM

SP

HWR

Condensate

Converter

CWS

Zone

T

CWR

VAV, All-Air Displacement Ventilation

Uses campus steam and chilled water.


Natural ventilation season
Natural Ventilation Season

Heating required for T < 8°C

Cooling required for T > 22°

  • May, June, September, October

  • Some of April, July, August and November

  • Accounting for Buoyancy Only!

  • Season Could be Extended:

  • Wind-driven ventilation

  • Use for Night-Cooling


Conclusions
Conclusions

Benefits

  • Natural Ventilation Possible ~ 1/3 of the Year or More

  • Even at Peak Load, Building Performs Better than 300 kWh/m^2-yr

  • Atrium Provides Daylighting and Enjoyable Semi-Outdoor Space

  • Underfloor Distribution Used In Both Ventilation Modes

    Drawbacks

  • High Volumetric Flow Rates – Ducts Take up Space

  • Thermal Mass Outside of Insulation

  • More Reduction of Solar Gains Possible, Though May Sacrifice Daylighting

  • More Consideration May be Needed for HVAC Systems on Floors 5-10 (If Buoyancy is Not Enough)


Thank you questions suggestions
Thank you.Questions? Suggestions?


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