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Events in a Globalising World. Lecture 6 Destinations in a global environment David Litteljohn. Major References. Hall and Page, pp 67-85 ( NB Ritzer not used this week ) Hankinson - as per lecture reference download at http://jvm.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/10/2/109 (see synopsis)

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Events in a globalising world

Events in a Globalising World

Lecture 6

Destinations in a global environment

David Litteljohn


Major references
Major References

  • Hall and Page, pp 67-85

  • (NB Ritzer not used this week)

  • Hankinson - as per lecture reference download at http://jvm.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/10/2/109(see synopsis)

  • Niall Caldwell, Joao R Freire, The differences between branding a country, a region and a city: Applying the Brand Box Model Journal of Brand Management. London: Sep 2004. Vol. 12, Iss. 1; p. 50

  • Go to http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?RQT=572&TS=1203077182&clientId=6297&VType=PQD&VName=PQD&VInst=PROD&PMID=49216&PCID=13579251&SrtM=0&SrchMode=3&aid=1


Events in a globalising world
Aims

Overall to illustrate local strategies to tourism globalisation though the example of branding

  • To consider international tourism demand in terms of volume and motivation

  • To consider the value of demand heuristics

  • To locate the issues of the local in terms of destination/place

  • To set a foundation for considering branding for tourism and events



Wto importance purpose of int l travel
WTO: Importance, purpose of int’l travel

Tourism: 6% of global exports

Standardisation - Satellite accounts

http://www.unwto.org/statistics/tsa/references/tsa_references.htm#




Definitions of visitor movements for statistics wto cited in r chadwick 1994
Definitions of visitor movements for statistics: WTO, cited in R.Chadwick 1994.

  • International tourism: consists of inbound tourism.

    • Visits to a country by non-residents and outbound tourism residents of a country visiting another country.

  • Internal tourism: residents of a country visiting their own country.

  • Domestic tourism: internal tourism plus inbound tourism (the tourism market of accommodation facilities and attractions within a country).

  • National tourism: internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the resident tourism market for travel agents and airlines)


Events in a globalising world

As quoted in Hall and Page in R.Chadwick 1994.


Events in a globalising world

From in R.Chadwick 1994.Old to New?

  • Tourism Consumers ‘then’

  • Inexperienced

  • Homogeneous

  • Predicable

  • Sun-lust

  • Get sunburnt

  • Security in numbers

  • Superiority

  • Escape

  • Tourism Consumers ‘now’

  • Mature

  • Hybrid

  • Spontaneous

  • Sun-plus

  • Keep clothes on

  • Want to be different

  • Understanding

  • Extension of life

(Source: Poon, A. (1989)

Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies,

Wallingford: CAB International.


Tourism niches
TOURISM NICHES in R.Chadwick 1994.

Source: Based on Novelli, 2005


Events in a globalising world

Both in R.Chadwick 1994.Old and New?

Generating market

OldNew

Old

New

Receiving destination(s)

Implications relate to development of infrastructure (physical

cultural/events/staging), administrative/co-ordination, Investments,

skills, image, competitiveness


Destination constituents

Cultural, physical and social characteristics that give a regional identity

Adequate tourism infrastructure

Contain more than 1 community or attraction

Existing or potential attractions

Have planning and marketing infrastructure

Be accessible to a large population base

Complex and multidimensional tourism product based on a variety of resources/ownership forms

Other economic and social activity (harmony/conflict)

A host community

Planning authority

An active private sector

Destination constituents

As based on HALL, C.M., 2005. Tourism Rethinking

the Social Science of Mobility. Harlow: Pearson Education, pp160-161.


Events in a globalising world

ENABLERS FOR GLOBALIZATION IN TOURISM regional identity

Tastes

Consumer

Economic

convergence

Lifestyle

Wants/Values

GEOGRAPHY -

MARKETS

Proximity

Political

convergence

IT Business

Systems

Costs/market access

Suppliers

Marketing

Techniques

(Interconnectivity)

Source: Derived from Hall


Kotler and gretner branding allows strategic place marketing
Kotler and Gretner Branding allows ‘Strategic Place Marketing’

  • Understanding environmental forces that affect its (I.e. a place/destination’s) marketability

  • Monitoring the external environment in relation to opportunities and threats

  • Involving all relevant stakeholders including government, citizens and businesses to develop a shared image

  • Setting and delivering incentives and managing the factors that may affect buying decisions including image, attractions, infrastructure and people

    (Kotler and Gertner, 2004)

http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=7&did=826458081&SrchMode=3&sid=1&Fmt=6&VInst

=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1203427012&clientId=6297&aid=1


A brand is
A brand is … Marketing’

  • ‘an identifiable product, service, person or place, augmented in such a way that the buyer or user perceives relevant, unique added valueswhich match their needs most closely. Success results from being able to sustain these added values in the face of competition’ (Chernatony and McDonald, 2003, P25).

  • Added values are functional and non-functional and take on meanings where consumer awareness is triggered consciously or intuitively (McRae et al, 1995).

£1070 on Gucci website

February 2008

black python with silver/gold hardware


Destination brand positioning map
DESTINATION BRAND POSITIONING MAP Marketing’

High emotional pull

India

The Bahamas

South Africa

Ireland

Paris

Scotland

High Celebrity value

Low Celebrity value

Poland

Antarctica

Ukraine

Afghanistan

(Morgan et al, 2002, p 23)

Low emotional pull



Hankinson 2004
Hankinson, 2004 Marketing’


Caldwell freire
Caldwell & Freire Marketing’

  • Adapt previous work to take into account a destination’s

  • Personality dimension/ Representationality

    • Related to ‘personalities, roles, set of needs and emotions’ (De Cheratony and McWilliam, 1989)

  • Technical capability/Functionality

    • Product characteristics - tangible and intangible


Caldwell freire s conclusions
Caldwell & Freire’s conclusions Marketing’

  • Regions score higher on representationality

  • Countries score higher on functionality

  • The two national groups showed some different perceptions

    • Same for Miami, Spain, Prague, Ibiza on representation (youth fashion?)

    • Same for USA on functionality

    • But some differences depending on location (and implied ‘desire’(what do they know and what do they want?) in perceptions of Spain (Ski vs. beach)


International brand promotion choices
International brand promotion choices Marketing’

  • Abandon attempts for unified int’l campaign and allow tailored approaches

  • Create an int’l campaign which avoids using cultural currencies which will be interpreted differently

  • Create an int’l campaign which draws from an global stock of iconography etc

    Source: Anholt S, 1999, Travel and tourism companies: Global brands, Journal of Vacation Marketing; 5; 290, http://jvm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/290


Concluding thoughts
Concluding thoughts Marketing’

  • Destinations

    • Competitive

    • Facing complex environments- demand and supply

  • Marketing - branding is only one example (other include Events strategies). Consider

    • Appropriation of marketing techniques from other sectors in relation to demand

    • Sustainability: stakeholders and over time

  • Events - what role chosen in the destination image/brand?


Events in a globalising world

Example Marketing’

The VisitScotland

Landscape

Space

Vibrant cities

Adventure

Culture & history

Relaxes

Outdoor activities

Stimulates

World class golf

Challenges

Festivals / Hogmanay

Diversity

Wildlife

Romance

Fine food & drink

Authentic

City & rural beaks

B&B - 5* luxury

Welcome

Discerning

Real

Friendly

Special

Cultured

Proud

Enriched

Individual

Rejuvenated

Unpretentious

Independent

Idiosyncratic

Confident

Inspired

In awe

Different

Safe

Facts & Symbols

Rational

Highlands scenery, tartan, bagpipes, castles, lochs,

whisky, golf, Edinburgh, accent

Brand Essence

Wheel

Proposition

Describe

Scotland

the

What the

A powerfully enriching personal experience

product

product does

“Live it”

for me

Essence

Enduring

-

- Dramatic

- Human

The natural wonder of

Northern Europe

How the

Brand personality

How the brand

brand makes

makes me look

me feel

Emotional

Innovation, integrity, pride, proficiency

Values


Events in a globalising world

EXAMPLE Marketing’