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Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 100 Introduction to Criminal Justice PowerPoint Presentation
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Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 100 Introduction to Criminal Justice Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali The History of Control. Before there were prisons: No CJS to punish and deal with violators Family, tribes enforcing laws Blood feuds

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Department of Criminal Justice

California State University - Bakersfield

CRJU 100

Introduction to Criminal Justice

Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali

The History of Control

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Before there were prisons:
  • No CJS to punish and deal with violators
  • Family, tribes enforcing laws
  • Blood feuds

Corporal Punishment:

  • Revenge
  • Physical harm on body relatively equal to crime committed
  • 1) Torture: disembowelment or impaling but now solitary confinement
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Michael Foucault: Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
  • Torture as justice

2) Flogging (whipping)

  • Leather thongs

3) Branding:

  • Assuring community offender has been punished
  • Repeat offenders branded on their forehead
  • Women wore identification on clothing

4) Mutilation

  • Eye for eye

5) Humiliation:

  • Verbal or physical
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6) Shock Death:
  • Hanging
  • Psychological torture

ECONOMIC PUNISHMENT:

  • The Galley: Ships powered by prisoners and slaves
  • Workhouses: bad living conditions and treatment. 1779 Penitentiary Act passed, reform legislation to address living conditions. Did not work but gave feds authority to oversee prison system
  • Exile and transportation: exchange of labor for money
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Prisons in America:
  • replaced workhouses
  • A) Control in Colonies: all housed together.
  • The Quakers movement in Pennsylvania: incarceration and hard labor preferable to corporal punishment
  • Walnut Street Jail: no women housed with men
  • Used as military prison ion Revolutionary War. Was converted into nation’s 1st penitentiary housing serious offenders. Set tone for formal prisons
  • Castle Island: another modern pen
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Development of the Pen:
  • Two systems: 1) Pennsylvania and Auburn
  • Penn: known as Cherry Hill
  • Separate and silent
  • Solitary confinement
  • Then overcrowding
  • Auburn in NY
  • Congregate and silent: eat and work together but locked in isolation and no face-to-face contact
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AGE OF REFORM:
  • 1860-1900
  • Charles Dickens toured Penns and criticized it
  • Yes for reform

Irish system of reform:

  • Punish but focus on reintegration
  • Developed 3 systems:
  • 1) Alexander Maconochie: making inmate trustworthy to soc
  • 2 beliefs: cruelty will create problems and must focus on reintegration
  • Instituted indeterminate sentences
  • Marks of commendation system
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2) Sir Walter Crofton:
  • Ticket of leave, conditional release under police supervision

3) Zebulon Brockway:

  • Crofton and Maconochie’s models at the reformatory in Elmira, NY.
  • Used 3-grade program for first time offender
  • No supervision after release. If in solitary confinement then bread and water only for months
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Prison Labor and Public Works: 1900-1930
  • work as beneficial
  • Keep them out of trouble
  • Rehab and offset cost of incarceration
  • Make goods used by state government, e.g.office furniture
  • Today: clean highway trash, dressed in prison attire for humiliation
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Age of Rehabilitation:
  • Very important goal of CJS esp since 1930s
  • Criminologists and correctional practitioners perceived criminality in a different manner
  • “germ theory of medicine”

Rehab not fully accomplished:

  • Lack of resources
  • Consensus
  • Medical model: flawed
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Retributive Era: 1970s to present
  • Mov’t away from rehab
  • 1960s events caused change
  • E.g. political movement: minorities, youth and women challenged how soc treated them, and inmates challenged conditions and confinement
  • Courts had “hands off” policy in matters concerning prison operation
  • 1960s: more constitutional rights
  • Black Panther Party and Black Muslims wanted legitimacy of their political orgs
  • Change from rehab to retribution
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Determinate sentences
  • Voluntary treatment
  • Abolition of parole: no early release although not fully accomplished: critics “soft on crime”

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT :

  • Method of social control
  • Controversial
  • Courts limited execution on mentally ill for deterrence and understanding
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Supporters to death penalty:
  • Deterrent: specific and general deterrence
  • Just deserts model: for soc justice
  • Retribution model: eye for an eye

Against death penalty:

  • Old testament of Bible “thou shall not kill”
  • Deterrence
  • Barbaric
  • Racial biases
  • Social class
  • Innocence