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Please update your information!! CONSTANTLY!!!!. (LIBRI USATI). NORTON WEBSITES.

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slide9 (LIBRI USATI)



ille hic est raphael timuit quo sospite vinci rerum magna parens et moriente mori


Here lies Raphael; the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome by him while he was living, and while he was dying, she feared death

key dates medieval to early modern europe

1450 Johannes Gutenberg prints a Bible with movable types

  • William Caxton sets up first printing press in London

1485 Henry VII, the first Tudor king, ascends the throne

1492 Discovery of America

  • Death of Lorenzo de’ Medici

1499 Desiderius Erasmus travels to England; meets Thomas More

1509 Henry VIII ascends the throne

1516 Thomas More, Utopia; Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso

1513 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince

1527 Martin Luther’s ninety-five theses

1534 Act of Supremacy

1543 Copernicus, On the Revolution of the Spheres

1547 Edward VI ascends the throne

1553 Mary Tudor ascends the throne

1558 Elizabeth I ascends the throne


King Henry VII

Under his rule England enjoyed a fairly long spell of unbroken peace and prosperity:

Tudor Grammar Schools with their more or less uniform curricula had established the possibility of loyalty to a community of the educated laity.

  • Army and Navy and the State administration were reorganised and put under the direct and strict control of the king.
  • A mercantile fleet was created to promote trade with foreign countries.
  • Political alliances were made; Henry VII married his eldest son, Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, the aunt of the future Emperor Charles V of Spain.

HENRY VIII (1509-47)

His accession was welcomed by humanists scholars, Erasmus of Rotterdam at their head, as the beginning of a new Golden Age. Henry received classicaleducation from John Skelton.

He was a typical Renaissance princewho maintained a magnificent court as he liked music and dancing; he was a poet and athlete. He was also a great patron of the arts and intellectuals. Yet he was cruel and executed all those who displeased him.

He spent money on warship and guns, making the English fighting fleetthe best in Europe.



Henry VIII died in 1574 and was succeeded by his nine years old son Edward, an invalid. King Edward continued his father’s moves towardsEnglish Protestantismunder guidance of his two advisors, his uncle, the idealist Seymour, and the ambitious John, Earl of Warwick. He was also helped by Archbishop Cranmer, who wroteTheBook of Common Prayer. a Protestant catechism and prayer book, was issued and church services in England instead of Latin were made obligatory. TheBook of Common Prayer replaced the Latin missal, it was introduced in 1549 and revised several times until 1975. It is considered alandmark of English prose.



She was the daughter of Catherine of Aragon and the wife of Philip II of Spain.

During her reign Puritans were put to death. The celebration of Puritan martyrs had survived in John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs (1562-63), whilst the Catholic queen for he intolerance as for religious matters became popularly known as Bloody Mary. A great amount of executions was carried out under her orders, 300 Protestants were burned at the stake, including her father’s friends Latimer and Cramner.


Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

A critical time of English history. England was under constant threat of its Catholic enemies, Spain in particular.

Elizabeth managed to steer the Church of England between the two extremes of Catholicism on the one hand, and strongly radical forms of Protestantism – in the form of Puritanism – on the other.

The religious compromise granted internal peace and enabled England to increase wealth and commercial power




He was the son of Mary Stuart and her second husband, Lord Darnley. He became the first of the Stuart kings in England, ruling both countries as James VI of Scotland and James I of England.

He showed a belief in the divine right of kings to rule. And in the subjection of Parliament to the king’s will; he also insisted on strict conformity to the rites of the Anglican Church. This excluded both Catholics and Puritans from government, since conformity to the Church of England was required to hold public offices.

Jan van Eyck

The Arnolfini Portrait


Hans Holbein

The Ambassadors