The War Between the States. Strengths & Weaknesses of the North & South. NORTH ¾ of US Navy’s officers and nearly all of its sailors were New Englanders Nearly all of the U.S. Navy’s warships were stationed in the North, so not seized by South during secession
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¾ of US Navy’s officers and nearly all of its sailors were New Englanders
Nearly all of the U.S. Navy’s warships were stationed in the North, so not seized by South during secession
All but one major shipyard was in the North
1/3 of the U.S. Army’s officers resigned to join the Confederacy, including Robert E. Lee
7 of the 8 military colleges in US were in the South, so there were many more trained soldiers in the SouthWho had the military advantage?
1826 – 1885
Placed in command of Union forces twice by Lincoln, but fired both times because of his cautiousness an unwillingness to attack if situation wasn’t perfect
Ran as a Democrat for president against Lincoln in 1864
1822 – 1885
Disgraced and run out of the Army before the war, he returned to duty and was highly successful in the Western campaigns
Eventually made overall US commander, despite being known for sacrificing huge numbers of his men to win battles
Later became President
1820 – 1891
Practiced a “scorched earth” policy in his “March to the Sea” campaign, badly damaging the South
Captured Raleigh, NC near the end of the war
“War is Hell”
After the war, assumed command of fighting the Indian Wars on the Great Plains
Pop. = 22 million
More population meant there were enough men to fight AND work in industry and farming
Additionally, immigrants from Europe all came into northern ports!
Pop. = 9 million (3 million of which were slaves!)
Less population meant that nearly every able-bodied white male would have to fight; women would have to contribute to war effort through farming and managing slavesWho had the manpower advantage?
80% of U.S. factories were in the North
Over 90% of clothes, shoes, and iron were made in the North
Nearly 100% of guns and gunpowder were made in the North
Had only 1 iron works which could make proper cannons
Had NO gunpowder manufacturing
South did move quickly to build factories to make weapons and gunpowder, but still relied on Europe for many other goodsWho had the manufacturing advantage?
Had 2/3 of railroads, plus turnpikes and the National Road, plus the Great Lakes and connected canals and waterways for moving food and materials around the North
Had only about 1/3 of railroads in US
Had only one major east-west rail line for moving food and materials around the South
Depended on the Mississippi RiverWho had the transportation advantage?
Already had an established treasury to print money
Received revenues from tariffs
Most powerful banks which could loan money to the government through the purchase of bonds were in the North
Controlled the nation’s gold reserves; gold and silver fields of the West stayed in the Union
By war’s end, inflation in the North was at 80% (high, but not unreasonable)
Depended on “cash crops”
Most Southern planters were “cash poor” & already in debt
Southern banks were small, had little cash to buy bonds
With Southern ports blockaded by Union warships, South could not rely on tariffs or trade with Europe for revenue
South began to print paper money, but it had little value
By war’s end, inflation = 9000% (outrageously high!)Who had the financial advantage?