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THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR. America: Past and Present Chapter 28. The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R. Control of postwar Europe Economic aid Nuclear disarmament. The Division of Europe. 1945--Russians occupy eastern Europe, American troops occupy western Europe

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the onset of the cold war


America: Past and Present

Chapter 28

the cold war begins issues dividing u s u s s r
The Cold War Begins:Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R.
  • Control of postwar Europe
  • Economic aid
  • Nuclear disarmament
the division of europe
The Division of Europe
  • 1945--Russians occupy eastern Europe, American troops occupy western Europe
  • Soviet Union seeks eastern European buffer
  • U.S. demands national self-determination through free elections throughout Europe
  • Stalin converts eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations
withholding economic aid
Withholding Economic Aid
  • Russia devastated by World War II
  • Some Americans seek to influence Russia with Lend-Lease economic aid
  • 1945--United States halts Lend-Lease without Russian settlement
  • Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy
the atomic dilemma
The Atomic Dilemma
  • 1943--nuclear race between U.S., U.S.S.R.
  • 1946--Baruch Plan
    • rapid reduction of U.S. military force
    • gradual reduction favors U.S. atomic monopoly
  • Soviet Union
    • larger conventional army than U.S.
    • immediate abolition of atomic weapons
  • 1947--George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State
  • Dean Acheson seeks for U.S. England's former role as arbiter of world affairs
  • George Kennan calls for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies”
the truman doctrine
The Truman Doctrine
  • 1947--Truman seeks funds to keep Greece, Turkey in western sphere of influence
  • Truman Doctrine: “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure”
  • Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union
the marshall plan
The Marshall Plan
  • 1947--George Marshall proposes aid for rebuilding European industries
  • Russia refuses aid
  • 1948--Marshall Plan adopted by Congress
  • Plan fosters western European prosperity
the western military alliance
The Western Military Alliance
  • 1949--North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • military alliance includes U.S., Canada, most of western Europe
    • U.S. troops stationed in Europe
  • NATO intensifies Russia's fear of the West
the berlin blockade
The Berlin Blockade
  • June, 1948--Russians blockade Berlin
  • Truman orders airlift to supply the city
  • 1949--Russians end blockade
  • U.S. political victory dramatizes division
the cold war expands
The Cold War Expands
  • 1947--U.S.-Russian arms race accelerates
  • Conflict expands to Asia
the military dimension
The Military Dimension
  • 1947--National Security Act
    • Department of Defense unifies armed forces
    • Central Intelligence Agency coordinates intelligence-gathering
    • National Security Council advises president
  • Defense budget devoted to air power
  • 1949--first Russian atomic bomb explodes, U.S. begins hydrogen bomb development
the cold war in asia
The Cold War in Asia
  • 1945--U.S. consolidates hold on Japan, former Japanese possessions in Pacific
  • 1949--victory of Mao Tse-tung brings China into Soviet orbit
  • Truman refuses recognition of Communist China, begins building up Japan
the korean war
The Korean War
  • June25, 1950--Communist North Korean forces invade U.S.-influenced South Korea
  • Truman makes South Korea’s defense a U.N. effort, sends in U.S. troops
    • U.S. routs Korean forces in South
    • Attempt to unify Korea draws in China
    • U.S. pushed back to South, war a stalemate
  • Result--massive American rearmament
the cold war at home
The Cold War at Home
  • New Deal economic policies undermined
  • Fears of Communist subversion
  • Republicans use anticommunism to revive their party
truman s troubles
Truman's Troubles
  • Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms
    • apathetic public
    • inflation
    • labor unrest
  • 1946--Republicans win Congress
truman vindicated
Truman Vindicated
  • 1948--Thomas Dewey versus Truman
    • Truman thought unelectable
    • Southern Democrats, Northern liberals desert
    • Roosevelt coalition reelects Truman on domestic issues
  • Republicans respond by challenging Truman’s handling of the Cold War
the loyalty issue
The Loyalty Issue
  • Fear of Communist subversion
  • Truman administration conducts campaign against “subversives”
  • Democrats blamed for
    • "losing" China to Communism
    • Russia's development of a hydrogen bomb
mccarthyism in action
McCarthyism in Action
  • 1950--Senator Joseph McCarthy launches anticommunist campaign
  • Innocent overwhelmed by accusations
  • Attacks on privileged bureaucrats
    • supported by Midwest Republicans
    • attract Irish, Italian, Polish workers to Republicans
the republicans in power
The Republicans in Power
  • 1952--Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party
  • July 27, 1953--stalemate accepted in Korea
  • Eisenhower deals passively with McCarthy
  • 1954--attack on Army discredits McCarthy who is then censured
eisenhower wages the cold war
Eisenhower Wages the Cold War
  • Eisenhower relaxes tensions with Russia
  • Eisenhower’s fears
    • debt imposed by defense spending
    • possibility of atomic warfare
entanglement in indochina
Entanglement in Indochina
  • Eisenhower refuses military aid for French retention of colonial Indochina
  • Victory of Communist Ho Chi Minh prompts intervention to prevent election
  • Vietnam divided
  • South Vietnam under U.S. puppet regime
containing china
Containing China
  • Tough line against China
  • Drive wedge between China, Russia
  • Strategy ultimately works
  • Effects not immediately apparent
turmoil in the middle east
Turmoil in the Middle East
  • 1956--Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal
  • France, England invade Egypt
  • Eisenhower wins Middle East trust by pressuring English, French withdrawal
  • 1958--Lebanon invites U.S. troops to maintain order
covert actions
Covert Actions
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives
  • Iran--CIA restores the shah to power
  • Guatemala--CIA ousts leftist government
  • Eastern Europe--refused to help East Germans or Hungarians
waging peace
Waging Peace
  • October, 1957--Russians launch Sputnik
  • October--U.S., U.S.S.R. agree to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere
  • November--Berlin blockade threatened
  • May, 1960--U-2 incident
the continuing cold war
The Continuing Cold War
  • January, 1961--Eisenhower warns against growing military-industrial complex
  • Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace and tranquility