introduction to pr research
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Introduction to PR Research

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Introduction to PR Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 72 Views
  • Uploaded on

Introduction to PR Research. Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.). (2011). “Research Methods in Communication” Dr. LaRae M. Donnellan , APR, CPRC School of Journalism & Graphic Communication Florida A&M University Spring 2012. What is “research”?. Casual definition?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction to PR Research' - tamar


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
introduction to pr research

Introduction to PR Research

Based on information from S. Zhou & W.D. Sloan (Eds.). (2011). “Research Methods in Communication”

Dr. LaRae M. Donnellan, APR, CPRC

School of Journalism & Graphic Communication

Florida A&M University

Spring 2012

what is research
What is “research”?
  • Casual definition?
  • “Real” research must be:
    • Rigorous and systematic

(http://alsn.mda.org/news/als-research-briefs-5)

persuasive appeals
Persuasive Appeals
  • Logos = Appeals based on logic or reason
  • Pathos = Appeals based on emotion
  • Ethos = Appeals based on a person’s 3 C’s: character, charisma, control

(http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4594744084/)

ways of knowing
Ways of Knowing
  • Knowing by authority
    • Seek information from “experts”
    • “Experts” sometimes disagree
    • Generalize expertise?

(http://lunaticadesnuda.blogspot.com/2008/03/gatorate-tiger-tiger-woods-own-gatorade.html)

ways of knowing1
Ways of Knowing
  • Knowing by personal experience
    • Through five senses
    • Direct knowledge
    • Subject to bias

(“The Round Robin: Politics and Government,” http://stumbleinn.net/forum/showthread.php?t=24851)

ways of knowing2
Ways of Knowing
  • Knowing by tenacity
    • Willing to accept something as true because it has seemed “right” for a long time
    • Tradition, habits, superstition

(http://www.life.com/gallery/52091/image/76549097/where-superstitions-come-from#index/10)

ways of knowing3
Ways of Knowing
  • Knowing by intuition
    • Fast and quick
    • Hunches and gut feelings
    • First impressions

(http://celebs.icanhascheezburger.com/2010/12/29/funny-celebrity-pictures-intuition/)

ways of knowing4
Ways of Knowing
  • Knowing by the scientific method
    • Systematic and rigorous
    • Minimize influence of bias or prejudice
    • Replicable

(http://www.buzzle.com/articles/famous-african-american-scientists.html)

scientific method
Scientific Method
  • Science is:
    • public
    • objective
    • empirical
    • systematic
    • cumulative

(http://www.dbskeptic.com/2008/03/25/faith-versus-the-scientific-method/)

types of knowledge
Types of Knowledge
  • Propositional: Have processed information and are aware of knowledge
  • Acquaintance: Have acquired through actual contact
  • How-to: Have procedural knowledge
  • “I know PR.”

(http://www.ksapr.com/pr-for-pr)

types of research
Types of Research
  • Exploratory vs. explanatory
    • Exploratory: What are social media?
    • Explanatory: Do social media affect people’s perceptions of presidential candidates?

(http://www.marketinghomeproducts.com/2011/07/07/the-number-1-rule-for-social-media-strategies/)

types of research1
Types of Research
  • Inductive vs. deductive
    • Inductive: Observe, collect data, generalize
    • Deductive: Start with theory then predict
  • The “circle of science”
    • Inductive & deductive
    • Replicated research
    • Cumulative findings

(http://www.floridagoldfruit.com/fresh-fruit/tangerines.html)

types of research2
Types of Research
  • Basic vs. applied
    • Basic: Focuses on building or refuting theories
    • Applied: Focuses on solving specific problems
  • Issue: How do people learn?

(http://www.haringcenter.washington.edu/)

types of research3
Types of Research
  • Quantitative vs. qualitative
    • Quantitative: Assumes there is an objective, single reality; uses numbers to count that reality
    • Qualitative: Assumes there are many realities; focuses on things other than numbers

(http://www.stratcom.net/services.html)

how people perceive reality
How People Perceive Reality
  • Positivism vs. constructivism
    • Positivist: Evidence gathered through senses; as an outsider, classifies and quantifies data; constructs statistical models
    • Constructivist: People construct multiple realities based on context; as an insider, lets multiple methodologies emerge

(http://uregina.ca/~hadjista/about.html)

research steps 1 3
Research Steps #1-#3
  • Identify topic
  • Do literature review
  • Select research design
    • Experiment, survey, focus group, content analysis, benchmarking, SWOT analysis, etc.

(http://deborahgabriel.com/2011/06/20/literature-review-completed-at-last/#.TwoievnxXVo

hypotheses vs research q s
Hypotheses vs. Research Q’s
  • Hypotheses
    • Dependent variable: What you measure
    • Independent variable: What you manipulate
    • H1: People who live in a clean environment and lead a healthful lifestyle live longer than those who don’t
  • Research questions
    • What affects longevity?
    • Who lives the longest?
    • Does race/age matter?
  • Theories
    • Explanation based on observation, experi- mentation & reasoning, used to explain & predict natural phenomena.

(http://latriplehelice.blogspot.com/2009/08/los-alimentos-organicos-son-solo-un.html)

research steps 4 6
Research Steps #4-#6
  • Collect data
  • Analyze data
  • Draw conclusions
    • Internal validity: Measure what you say you are
    • External validity: Results generalizable to larger setting/public

(http://www2.pciaonline.org/2007AfricaWorkshopProceedings/index.pdf)

research steps 7 8
Research Steps #7-#8
  • Report results
  • Replicate findings
    • “One study does not prove anything.” (Zhou, p. 20)
    • Reliability = The extent to which the instrument yields the same results on repeated trials

(http://foureyesfortwins.wordpress.com/2011/11/03/is-the-internet-reliable-nowadays/)

communication research history
Communication Research History
  • Early research more like reporting
    • Historical and descriptive
  • Auguste Comte, French philosopher
    • Promoted positivism (emphasis on empirical research through the senses)
  • Ralph Nafziger
    • Promoted quantitative research in the 1940s-1950s
  • Foundations got into the act
    • Supported quantitative research
    • Payne Fund: How movies affect children

Auguste Comte

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguste_Comte)

communication research history1
Communication Research History
  • 1920s-1930s
    • Were the media causing or at least exacerbating the problems of organized crime, juvenile delinquency? – Empirical research used to see if this were true.
    • J.B. Watson: Stimulus-response
    • W.I. Thomas & Gordon Allpert: Attitudes
      • Are people predisposed to respond a certain way?
      • Can ads influence attitudes toward products and increase sales?
      • Attitude scales developed.

(http://ageinghealthily.wordpress.com/)

communication research history2
Communication Research History
  • 1940s
    • Paul Lazarsfeld – Empirical studies of media effects
    • Robert Merton – Focus groups
    • Herta Herzog – Media “gratification”
    • Joseph Klapper – Media reinforce, not cause/change
  • WW II
    • Carl Hovland – Propaganda
    • Moved research from just studying differences in attitudes to studying how propaganda changes attitudes

(http://www.guidespot.com/guides/world_war_ii_posters)

communication research history3
Communication Research History
  • Content analysis:
    • Early 20th century focus on content of newspapers, movies
    • Harold D. Lasswell – Mass media content (Hierarchy of Needs)
  • 1950s-1960s
    • Focus on quantitative research in journalism/communication programs at universities
    • Ph.D. became more important hiring criterion
    • Growth of professional associations

(http://communicationleadership.usc.edu/blog/leading_journalism_association_spotlights_cclp_research_on_funding_the_news.html)

communication research history4
Communication Research History
  • 1970s-1990s
    • Re-emergence of qualitative research
    • Cultural studies
  • Blending of quantitative and qualitative
    • But they reflect different worldviews
  • Triangulation – Richer results

(http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/100047/chapters/[email protected]lan.aspx)

review
Review
  • Define the three types of persuasive appeal.
  • Describe the five ways of knowing.
  • Define the difference between a hypothesis and a research question.
  • Describe the eight steps of doing research.
  • Describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative research. Give examples of each.
  • Briefly describe how communication research has evolved over time.

(http://sakitaholley.com/2011/06/21/how-to-get-a-pr-job/)

ad