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Accommodations, Modifications, Co-Teaching, IDEA, Progress Monitoring. BY: HEATHER BARIBEAULT. IDEA.
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Accommodations, Modifications, Co-Teaching, IDEA, Progress Monitoring BY: HEATHER BARIBEAULT
IDEA • (3) Specially designed instruction means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction—(i) To address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and(ii) To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children.
Difference between an IEP & 504 • The Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) is a plan or program developed to ensure that a child who has a disability identified under the law and is attending an elementary or secondary educational institution receives specialized instruction and related services. • The 504 Plan is a plan developed to ensure that a child who has a disability identified under the law and is attending an elementary or secondary educational institution receives accommodations that will ensure their academic success and access to the learning environment.
IEP vs. 504 • Not all students who have disabilities require specialized instruction. For students with disabilities who do require specialized instruction, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) controls the procedural requirements, and an IEP is developed. • The IDEA process is more involved than that of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and requires documentation of measurable growth. For students with disabilities who do not require specialized instruction but need the assurance that they will receive equal access to public education and services, a document is created to outline their specific accessibility requirements. Students with 504 Plans do not require specialized instruction, but, like the IEP, a 504 Plan should be updated annually to ensure that the student is receiving the most effective accommodations for his/her specific circumstances.
504 • Just because a child has a disability or impairment does not mean that he/she automatically qualifies for special education services under the IDEA. A child with a disability who does not need special education services will not qualify for special education and related services under the IDEA. He or she may however receive protections under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. • Eligibility for protections under Section 504 depends on the child in question having a physical or mental impairment which must substantially limit at least one major life activity. Major life activities include walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, writing, performing math calculations, working, caring for oneself, and performing manual tasks. • The question that must be addressed by the school's special education team is whether the child has an "impairment" that "substantially limits one or more major life activities. Section 504 requires an evaluation that draws information from a variety of sources. Section 504 does not require a meeting before a change in placement.
Section 504 Accommodation Plan • Under Section 504, the child with a disability may receive accommodations and modifications that are not available to children who are not disabled. These accommodations and modifications are also available under IDEA • Tests taken in a separate location with time limits waived or extended. • Giving the child frequent breaks out of the classroom to release tics in a less embarrassing environment.
504 Accommodations Continued • The use of a word processor due to fine motor, visual motor deficits • Tests/reports given orally • Shortened assignments • Standardized tests answers written directly in the test booklet and transferred onto answer sheet by teacher or assistant. • Class notes provided rather than having the student copy from the chalkboard or overhead.
504 Accommodations Continued • Allowing the child to leave the classroom 2 to 3 minutes early to avoid crowded hallways. • Preferential seating in the classroom • Provision of a daily assignment sheet to be filled out by the student and verified by the teacher for accuracy. The parent could then check to make sure that all the work is accomplished. This would assist with homework prioritizing and management.
Frequently Asked Questions & Scenarios • Let's suppose that your special needs child is severely visually impaired. Under Section 504, your child cannot be discriminated against because of the disability. Your child must be provided with access to an education, to and through the schoolhouse door. Modifications may need to be made to the building itself and other accommodations may need to be made for your child. Preferential seating, enlarged print texts, workbooks, tests, etc. would be reasonable accommodations.
Frequently Asked Questions & Scenarios • Section 504 defines a free appropriate public education as "the provision of regular or special education and related aids and services that . . . are designed to meet individual educational needs of persons with disabilities as adequately as the needs of persons without disabilities are met and . . . are based upon adherence to specified procedures."
Frequently Asked Questions & Scenarios • Now let's suppose that your visually impaired child also has Tourette Syndrome, ADHD and a Non Verbal Learning Disability that adversely affects the child's ability to learn. Under the IDEA, if your child has a disability that adversely affects educational performance, your child is entitled to an education that is designed to meet the child's unique needs and from which your child receives educational benefit. • Section 504 does not guarantee that your visually impaired child will receive an education from which your child receives educational benefit. Your Section 504 child has access to the same free appropriate public education that is available to children who are not disabled
Modifications • Usually a modification means a change in what is being taught to or expected from the student. Making an assignment easier so the student is not doing the same level of work as other students is an example of a modification.
Modifications • If the IEP team decides that a child needs a particular modification or accommodation, this information must be included in the IEP. Supports are also available for those who work with the child, to help them help that child be successful. Supports for school staff must also be written into the IEP..
Modifications • Some of these supports might include: attending a conference or training related to the child’s needs, getting help from another staff member or administrative person, having an aide in the classroom, or getting special equipment or teaching materials
Supplementary Aids & Services • One of the most powerful types of supports available to children with disabilities are the other kinds of supports or services (other than special education and related services) that a child needs to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.
Supplementary Aids & Services • Some examples of these additional services and supports, called supplementary aids and services in IDEA, are: adapted equipment—such as a special seat or a cut-out cup for drinking; assistive technology—such as a word processor, special software, or a communication system; training for staff, student, and/or parents;peer tutors;a one-on-one aide;adapted materials—such as books on tape, large print, or highlighted notes; andcollaboration/consultation among staff, parents, and/or other professionals.
Examples in the Field • Supports to address environmental needs (e.g., preferential seating; planned seating on the bus, in the classroom, at lunch, in the auditorium, and in other locations; altered physical room arrangement) • Levels of staff support needed (e.g., consultation, stop-in support, classroom companion, one-on-one assistance; type of personnel support: behavior specialist, health care assistant, instructional support assistant);
Examples in the field • Planning time for collaboration needed by staff; • Child’s specialized equipment needs (e.g., wheelchair, computer, software, voice synthesizer, augmentative communication device, utensils/cups/plates, restroom equipment); • Pacing of instruction needed (e.g., breaks, more time, home set of materials); • Presentation of subject matter needed (e.g., taped lectures, sign language, primary language, paired reading and writing);
Examples in the field • Materials needed (e.g., scanned tests and notes into computer, shared note-taking, large print or Braille, assistive technology); • Assignment modification needed (e.g., shorter assignments, taped lessons, instructions broken down into steps, allow student to record or type assignment); • Self-management and/or follow-through needed (e.g., calendars, teach study skills)
Examples in the Field • Self-management and/or follow-through needed (e.g., calendars, teach study skills) • Testing adaptations needed (e.g., read test to child, modify format, extend time); • Social interaction support needed (e.g., provide Circle of Friends, use cooperative learning groups, teach social skills); • Training needed for personnel.
Accommodations • An accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. Allowing a student who has trouble writing to give his answers orally is an example of an accommodation. This student is still expected to know the same material and answer the same questions as fully as the other students, but he doesn’t have to write his answers to show that he knows the information.
Include: Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers • Identify Classroom environmental, curricular, and instructional demands • Note student strengths and needs • Check for potential areas of student success • Look for potential problem areas • Use information gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations • Decide which adaptations to implement • Evaluate student progress
The Essential Nine (Instructional Strategies) 1.) Identify similarities and differences 2.) Summarizing and taking notes 3.) Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 4.) Homework and practice 5.) Nonlinguistic representations 6.) Cooperative learning 7.) Setting objectives and providing feedback 8.) Generating and testing hypotheses 9.) Cues, questions, and advance organizers
Instruction & Lesson Design • Introduction • Presentation (I do) • Practice (We do) • Application (You do) • Assessment • Reflection
Tips for Teaching Strategies • Only one or two strategies should be introduced at a time • Students can learn through instruction/modeling approach of more directed instructional experiences • All modeling, practice, and application of the strategies should be as interactive and collaborative as possible • Gradually, the teacher should scaffold instruction by reducing the teacher modeling and increasing the student modeling and use of the strategy
Tips for Teaching • Practice and application of the strategies should take place within the context of real reading and writing • Students should be encouraged to use the strategy in other curricular areas
Who is Responsible? • Who is responsible for carrying out the 504 and IEP accommodations and modifications for students in my classroom? (a) If it is an accommodation (an adaptation that does not change the standard of the assignment i.e. extra time, preferential seating, note taker etc.), you as the classroom teacher, are responsible for carrying out the accommodations.
Who is Responsible? • (b) If a student has a modification (fundamentally changes the standard of the assignment i.e. reduced reading, partial completion of assignments) or is receiving modified curriculum in your class, the special education advocate teacher is responsible for making sure the student has the appropriate modifications.
Grades • How do I grade a student in my class that has modifications to the curriculum? Is it fair that he/she receives the same grade that another student receives who met the standards at a “higher” level? • The law supports that “fair” is when students receive what they need. If a student needs modifications as a result of their disability, they are written into the IEP. By law we must follow the IEP. Students that do receive modified curriculum receive credit for the class, but under comments indicate the grade was modified.
Grades • Students that receive modified grades that earn an 80% or higher may receive a letter grade • If the student is a pass/fail they may receive a letter grade of B- and up • If lower than a B- a student should receive a p for pass of if they failed • If a student receives all of the accommodations and modifications and they still fail the team needs to meet to indicate if the modifications and accommodations were appropriate
Documentation • In the event that a student with a disability is failing it is important to document the strategies, interventions, collaboration time (between the general teacher and regular education teacher) • Progress Monitoring data collection should be completed daily by the special education teacher and/or instructional assistant in the general education classroom
Co-Teaching Defined • Co-teaching has been defined in a number of ways. Some individuals consider any arrangement with two adults assigned to a classroom to be co-teaching, even when one of the individuals is a paraprofessional or parent volunteer. A more accurate and useful definition of co-teaching includes these elements:
Co-Teaching • Co-teaching is a service delivery option. Co-teaching exists as a means for providing the specialized instruction to which students with disabilities are entitled while ensuring access to general curriculum in the least restrictive environment with the provision of supplementary aids and services. • Two or more professionals with equivalent licensure and employment status are the participants in co-teaching.
Co-Teaching • Co-teaching is based on parity. When paraprofessionals or other adults assist in classrooms, the contribution is valuable, but it is appropriately considered support rather than co-teaching. • Co-teachers share instructional responsibility and accountability for a single group of students for whom they both have ownership. Both educators contribute to instruction as part of co-teaching. Perhaps the most significant re-conceptualization critical for co-teaching is the notion of a two-teacher classroom rather than a one-teacher classroom with “help” available from the other teacher.
Co-Teaching • Co-teaching occurs primarily in a shared classroom or workspace Although instructional reasons sometimes exist for physically separating students and teachers, co-teaching usually involves multiple activities occurring in one place. • Co-teachers’ specific level of participation may vary based on their skills and the instructional needs of the student group. Especially in middle and high school when special educators are co-teaching in subjects in which they have had limited professional preparation, their skill and comfort for contributing to initial instruction may take time to develop. In such situations, care must be taken to by co-teachers to outline roles and responsibilities so that both professionals do have meaningful roles capitalizing on their strengths.
Six Approaches to Co-Teaching 1. One Teach, One Observe. One of the advantages in co-teaching is that more detailed observation of students engaged in the learning process can occur. With this approach, for example, co-teachers can decide in advance what types of specific observational information to gather during instruction and can agree on a system for gathering the data. Afterward, the teachers should analyze the information together.
Six Approaches to Co-Teaching 2. One Teach, One Assist. In a second approach to co-teaching, one person would keep primary responsibility for teaching while the other professional circulated through the room providing unobtrusive assistance to students as needed.
Six Approaches to Co-Teaching 3. Parallel Teaching. On occasion, student learning would be greatly facilitated if they just had more supervision by the teacher or more opportunity to respond. In parallel teaching, the teachers are both covering the same information, but they divide the class into two groups and teach simultaneously
Six Approaches to Co-Teaching 4. Station Teaching. In this co-teaching approach, teachers divide content and students. Each teacher then teaches the content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If appropriate, a third station could give students an opportunity to work independently.
Six Approaches to Co-Teaching 5. Alternative Teaching: In most class groups, occasions arise in which several students need specialized attention. In alternative teaching, one teacher takes responsibility for the large group while the other works with a smaller group.
Six Approaches to Co-Teaching 6. Team Teaching: In team teaching, both teachers are delivering the same instruction at the same time. Some teachers refer to this as having one brain in two bodies. Others call it tag team teaching. Most co-teachers consider this approach the most complex but satisfying way to co-teach, but the approach that is most dependent on teachers' styles.
Planning Guide for Inclusive Schooling & Co-Teaching • Phase 1: Curriculum Outline • General education teacher prepares an outline of upcoming curriculum: topics, key concepts, activities, projects. It is best if the teacher makes a copy of this for the other professional.
Planning Guide for Inclusive Schooling & Co-Teaching • Phase 2: Instructional Delivery • General education teacher prepares an outline of upcoming curriculum: topics, key concepts, activities, projects. It is best if the teacher makes a copy of this for the other professional. The general education teacher and special educator jointly decide how to arrange teachers and students to accomplish the curriculum priorities. Both teachers take active instructional roles.
Planning Guide for Inclusive Schooling & Co-Teaching • Phase 3: Individualizing • Based on shared planning, the special educator makes accommodations for students with special needs. This might include preparing alternative materials, adapting materials, or creating supplemental materials.
Promoting Active Student Participation Options for Assignments • Debate • Make a speech • Write an essay • Write a magazine article • Create a riddle • Create a crossword puzzle • Write a letter • Construct a timeline • Create a chart or graph • Conduct an interview • Design an exhibit • Design a greeting card • Create an ad
Promoting Active Student Participation Options for Assignments • Design a brochure • Make a clay sculpture • Create a slogan • Act out a scene • Perform a skit • Invent a code • Design a computer graphic • Keep a journal • Write a song • Design a puzzle • Tell a story • Write a story • Write a newspaper article • Make an audiotape • Re-write the ending • Make a diagram
Promoting Active Student Participation Options for Assignments • Develop a theory • Take pictures-digital camera • Design a movie poster • Design a checklist • Write an editorial • Play “Charades” • Make a videotape • Draw a caricature
Teacher supports Available in Room 1212 Workshop Materials • Solo (read and write out-loud) computer software • Writing with symbols • Adapted literature • Adapted curriculum • Progress Monitoring Sheets • Co-Teaching Data Inventory • Sample Survey about Co-Teaching • Instructional Strategies for students with disabilities
Next Step PLEASE BREAK INTO DEPARTMENTS; CREATE AN ASSIGNMENT FROM THE CURRICULUM COLLABORATING WITH SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS