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From Lau to Unz: An Anatomy of the Policy Debate over Bilingual Education. Kenji Hakuta Stanford University http://www.stanford.edu/~hakuta National Association for Bilingual Education Philadelphia March 22, 2002. 1974. 1998. U. S. Supreme Court Lau v. Nichols 1974.

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  1. From Lau to Unz: An Anatomy of the Policy Debate over Bilingual Education. Kenji Hakuta Stanford University http://www.stanford.edu/~hakuta National Association for Bilingual Education Philadelphia March 22, 2002

  2. 1974 1998

  3. U. S. Supreme CourtLau v. Nichols 1974 Basic English skills are at the very core of what these public schools teach. Imposition of a requirement that, before a child can effectively participate in the educational program, he must already have acquired those basic skills is to make a mockery of public education. We know that those who do not understand English are certain to find their classroom experiences wholly incomprehensible and in no way meaningful.

  4. Lau v. Nichols 1974 There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.

  5. Lau v. Nichols 1974 There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education. No specific remedy is urged upon us. Teaching English to students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak the language is one choice. Giving instructions to this group in Chinese is another. There may be others. Petitioners ask only that the Board of Education be directed to apply its expertise to the problem and rectify the situation.

  6. 1975 Lau Remedies Terrence Bell, the United States Commissioner of Education issued the “Lau Remedies”. These remedies went beyond the Lau decision and required that bilingual education be provided. “Because an ESL program does not consider the affective or cognitive development of students [in the elementary and intermediate grades], an ESL program is not appropriate.”

  7. Common Program Categories • English as a second language (ESL) • Structured immersion (or "sheltered instruction" in secondary grades) • Transitional bilingual education • Maintenance bilingual education • Two-way bilingual programs

  8. EVALUATIONS 1978 AIR Study, "Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program” released in January. 1981 Circulation of Baker & De Kanter internal OPBE document "Effectiveness of Bilingual Education: A Review of the Literature", September. 1983 "Longitudinal Study of Immersion and Dual Language Instructional Programs for Language Minority Children" 1983 "National Longitudinal Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Services to Language Minority, LEP Students” 1985 Willig meta-analysis 1987 Rossell & Ross review. 1998 Greene meta-analysis.

  9. Castañeda v. Pickard, 1981 The U.S. 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ruling interpreted the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 statement of "appropriate action" as requiring the meeting of three criteria: (1) programs must be based on "sound educational theory"; (2) they must be "implemented effectively" with adequate resources and personnel, and (3) after a trial period, the program must be evaluated as effective in overcoming language handicaps.

  10. Castañeda Model Theory Implementation Learning modify

  11. What is sound theory?

  12. Effective Schools Attributes Attributes of effective schools and classrooms have been identified that refer to school factors extending beyond the program types with respect to language: a supportive school-wide climate, school leadership, a customized learning environment, articulation and coordination within and between schools, some use of native language and culture in the instruction of language-minority students, a balanced curriculum that incorporates both basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction, opportunities for student-directed activities, use of instructional strategies that enhance understanding, opportunities for practice, systematic student assessment, staff development, and home and parent involvement.

  13. Effective Schools Attributes Attributes of effective schools and classrooms have been identified that refer to school factors extending beyond the program types with respect to language: a supportive school-wide climate, school leadership, a customized learning environment, articulation and coordination within and between schools, some use of native language and culture in the instruction of language-minority students, a balanced curriculum that incorporates both basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction, opportunities for student-directed activities, use of instructional strategies that enhance understanding, opportunities for practice, systematic student assessment, staff development, and home and parent involvement. What is sound theory?

  14. Language Proficiency

  15. How Long Does It Take? English oral proficiency, reading and writing development and redesignation probability from LEP to FEP as a function of grade level. District A.

  16. Cummins’ Common Underlying Proficiency

  17. Relationship between Native Language (Spanish) and Second Language (English) Proficiencies, r = .51.

  18. Performance differences between strong and weak L1 and L2 readers.

  19. Lily Wong Fillmore and Catherine Snow What Teachers Need to Know about Language ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics http://www.cal.org/ericcll/teachers/teachers.pdf

  20. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages.

  21. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages. Analyze tests, assessing the writer’s use of language for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes and to express perspective and mood.

  22. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages. Analyze tests, assessing the writer’s use of language for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes and to express perspective and mood. Extract meaning from texts and relate it to other ideas and information.

  23. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages. Analyze tests, assessing the writer’s use of language for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes and to express perspective and mood. Extract meaning from texts and relate it to other ideas and information. Evaluate evidence and arguments presented in texts and critique the logic of arguments made in them.

  24. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages. Analyze tests, assessing the writer’s use of language for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes and to express perspective and mood. Extract meaning from texts and relate it to other ideas and information. Evaluate evidence and arguments presented in texts and critique the logic of arguments made in them. Recognize and analyze textual conventions used in various genres for special effect to trigger background knowledge or for perlocutionary effect.

  25. Summarize texts, using linguistic cues to interpret and infer the writer’s intentions and messages. Analyze tests, assessing the writer’s use of language for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes and to express perspective and mood. Extract meaning from texts and relate it to other ideas and information. Evaluate evidence and arguments presented in texts and critique the logic of arguments made in them. Recognize and analyze textual conventions used in various genres for special effect to trigger background knowledge or for perlocutionary effect. Compose and write an extended, reasoned text that is well developed and supported with evidence and details.

  26. Effective Schools Attributes Attributes of effective schools and classrooms have been identified that refer to school factors extending beyond the program types with respect to language: a supportive school-wide climate, school leadership, a customized learning environment, articulation and coordination within and between schools, some use of native language and culture in the instruction of language-minority students, a balanced curriculum that incorporates both basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction, opportunities for student-directed activities, use of instructional strategies that enhance understanding, opportunities for practice, systematic student assessment, staff development, and home and parent involvement. What is sound theory?

  27. SES

  28. Household Income by Language Group (Source: 1990 Census of Population and Housing)

  29. Parent Education Beyond High School High School or GED Some High School < High School Norm-referenced English writing scores by parent educational level, District B.

  30. Effective Schools Attributes Attributes of effective schools and classrooms have been identified that refer to school factors extending beyond the program types with respect to language: a supportive school-wide climate, school leadership, a customized learning environment, articulation and coordination within and between schools, some use of native language and culture in the instruction of language-minority students, a balanced curriculum that incorporates both basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction, opportunities for student-directed activities, use of instructional strategies that enhance understanding, opportunities for practice, systematic student assessment, staff development, and home and parent involvement. What is sound theory?

  31. Elements of Standards-Based Reform • clearly articulated, publicly accepted standards for academic content, student performance, school capacity • alignment of educational components around the standards • assessment, accountability, and improvement system built on standards • important condition: fairness in testing (assessment in a language and form most likely to yield valid and reliable results)

  32. Figure 11

  33. Effective Schools Attributes Attributes of effective schools and classrooms have been identified that refer to school factors extending beyond the program types with respect to language: a supportive school-wide climate, school leadership, a customized learning environment, articulation and coordination within and between schools, some use of native language and culture in the instruction of language-minority students, a balanced curriculum that incorporates both basic and higher-order skills, explicit skills instruction, opportunities for student-directed activities, use of instructional strategies that enhance understanding, opportunities for practice, systematic student assessment, staff development, and home and parent involvement. What is sound theory?

  34. Figure 9

  35. Proposition 227 All minority language children will be placed in English language classrooms. Children who are limited English proficient will be taught through sheltered English immersion for a period not normally to exceed one year.

  36. Rosalie Porter Director, READ Institute “-- learning subject matter content in a second language can begin to occur in a matter of weeks, starting with the subjects that can be partially understood through symbols (mathematics), active experiments and demonstrations (science), and progressing to the social science.”

  37. English Learning Students (2nd Grade, SAT9 2000 Reading) Schools providing bilingual instruction Schools using only English immersion Oceanside USD

  38. English Learning Students (3rd Grade, SAT9 2000 Reading) Schools providing bilingual instruction Schools using only English immersion Oceanside USD

  39. Figure 1. SAT-9 reading scores for Oceanside and Statewide for 1998 thru 2000. Blue lines represent data for all students; red lines represent data for English Learners (LEP). All Students All Students English Learners English Learners Oceanside Statewide

  40. What are the components of “sound educational theory”?

  41. Carnine and Meeder Principles • Random assignment of students and teachers to conditions • Representative and unbiased sample • Minimum N=12 per condition • Valid, reliable measures • Confounding variables controlled • Valid statistics • Educationally significant

  42. National Reading Panel Standards • True or quasi-experiment; • Study participants must be carefully described (age, demographic, cognitive, academic, and behavioral characteristics); • Study interventions must be described in sufficient detail to allow for replicability, including how long the interventions lasted and how long the effects lasted; • Study methods must allow judgments about how instruction fidelity was insured; and • Studies must include a full description of outcome measures.

  43. Research Reform Proposal • A new, independent “Education Audit Agency” • Dedicated to the canons of scientific inquiry and the pursuit of truth, without fear or favor • In its conduct of education research, the Education Audit Agency should strive for scientific rigor, including, to the maximum degree possible, randomized field trials. William Bennett, Chester Finn, Tom Loveless, Diane Ravitch Seven Principles for Reauthorizing OERI, NAEP and NAGB May 4, 2000

  44. A Definition of Research …is evaluated using randomized experiments in which individuals, entities, programs, or activities are randomly assigned to different variations (including a control condition) to compare the relative effects of the variations. Amendment offered by Mr. Schaffer to the Amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by Mr. Goodling (ESEA) Document dated April 5, 2000, courtesy of Gerald Sroufe, AERA

  45. NERPPB Policy Statement The power of science comes from a combination of strong theory and data that bear on the theory. This implies endorsement of explicit ideas and agreed-upon methods for exploring and testing these ideas based on observation that has internal and external consistency. Experiments, as a classification of research, should not be scattershot or universal. Rather, they should be justified by a cumulative record of rigorous naturalistic observation and piloting. This requires knowledge of context in addition to adherence to scientific canons. While experiments in education may not be used as frequently as they should as a preferred means for investigation … “science” should not be equated with “experiments.”

  46. National Academy of Sciences Scientific Research in Education Lisa Towne andRichard Shavelson, Eds. Methodology appropriate to the question being asked.