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Mobile Broadband Wireless Access. Dr. Muid Mufti 20 December 2006. History of Wireless. First Ever Wireless Communication ? First Mobile Radio Telephone 1924 Phenomenal growth with the turn of the century. Global. Satellite. Suburban. Urban. In-Building. Picocell. Microcell.

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mobile broadband wireless access

Mobile Broadband Wireless Access

Dr. Muid Mufti

20 December 2006

history of wireless
History of Wireless
  • First Ever Wireless Communication ?
  • First Mobile Radio Telephone1924
  • Phenomenal growth with the turn of the century
the wireless experience

Global

Satellite

Suburban

Urban

In-Building

Picocell

Microcell

Macrocell

Basic Terminal

PDA Terminal

Audio/Visual Terminal

The Wireless Experience
advantages of wireless
Advantages of Wireless
  • Low cost
  • Low maintenance
  • Quick deployment
  • Reduced sunk cost
  • Mobility
disadvantages of wireless
Disadvantages of Wireless
  • Non secure
  • Environmentally vulnerable
  • Frequency reuse issues
ubiquitous networks
Ubiquitous Networks
  • MBWA based product
    • Cell phone TV
    • Streaming Multimedia
    • Video on Demand
  • MBWA based Services
    • Mobile medical aid
    • Train entertainment systems
    • Surveillance
  • Strategic MBWA business
defining broadband
Defining Broadband
  • High dates rates ?
  • FCC definition of broadband: Connections with speed exceeding 200 Kb/s in at least one direction
  • PTA definition of broadband: High speed, ‘always on’ Internet connection. Speed of connection ranging from 128 Kbps to 2 Mbps or higher.
  • Refers to the ability of the user to view content across the internet that includes large files, such as video, audio, multimedia and 3D graphics
  • QoS Support
mobile vs wireless
Mobile vs. Wireless

Wireless

Mobile

mobility
Mobility
  • Range of mobility
    • Geographic range
    • Across networks
    • IP mobility
  • Speed of mobility
    • Personal mobility
    • Vehicular mobility
  • Frequency of mobility
    • Mobility Overhead
slide10
MBWA
  • Be able to support broadband data rates with given QoS with mobility
  • Mobility speed
    • Personal mobility
    • 100+ km/h – high speed trains, cars, buses etc.
mobile broadband development streams
Mobile Broadband Development Streams
  • UMTS-TDD (WCDMA-TDD)
  • FDD W-CDMA
  • TD-SCDMA
  • 1x EVDO
  • WiMAX (802.16e)
  • 802.20 (MobileFi)
global wireless data standards
Global Wireless Data Standards

WUSB

802.16

WiMax

802.15

Zigbee

Data Rates

802.11

Wifi

802.20

MobileFi

Bluetooth

UMTS

GPRS

Range

umts tdd
UMTS-TDD
  • Up to 12Mbps
  • More than 3 times higher than any other commercial mobile platform.
  • True N=1 frequency reuse
    • Network operator can deploy a network with multiple towers using only one RF Channel
  • 5 MHz RF channel for a 3.84 Mcps system
  • 10 MHz channel for a 7.68 Mcps system.
  • Mobility up to 120 km/hr within the network footprint
  • Tower-to-tower handoff roaming
  • Network-to-network roaming
fdd w cdma
FDD W-CDMA
  • Frequency band:1920 MHz -1980 MHz and 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz (Frequency Division Duplex)
  • Minimum frequency band required: ~ 2x5MHz
  • Frequency re-use: 1
  • Carrier Spacing: 4.4MHz - 5.2 MHz
  • Maximum number of (voice) channels on 2x5MHz: ~196 (spreading factor 256 UL, AMR 7.95kbps) / ~98 (spreading factor 128 UL, AMR 12.2kbps)
  • Voice coding: AMR codecs (4.75 kHz - 12.2 kHz, GSM EFR=12.2 kHz) and SID (1.8 kHz)
  • Channel coding: Convolutional coding, Turbo code for high rate data
  • Duplexer needed (190MHz separation), Asymmetric connection supported
  • Tx/Rx isolation: MS: 55dB, BS: 80dB
  • Receiver: Rake
  • Receiver sensitivity: Node B: -121dBm, Mobile -117dBm at BER of 10-3
  • Data type: Packet and circuit switch
  • Modulation: QPSK
  • Pulse shaping: Root raised cosine, roll-off = 0.22
  • Chip rate: 3.84 Mcps
fdd w cdma20
FDD W-CDMA
  • Channel raster: 200 kHz
  • Maximum user data rate (Offered): 384 kbps (year 2002), higher rates ( ~ 2 Mbps) in the near future. HSPDA will offer data speeds up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems)
  • Channel bit rate: 5.76Mbps
  • Frame length: 10ms (38400 chips)
  • Number of slots / frame: 15
  • Number of chips / slot: 2560 chips
  • Handovers: Soft, Softer, (interfrequency: Hard)
  • Power control period: Time slot = 1500 Hz rate
  • Power control step size: 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 dB (Variable)
  • Power control range: UL 80dB, DL 30dB
  • Mobile peak power: Power class 1: +33 dBm (+1dB/-3dB) = 2W; class 2 +27 dBm, class 3 +24 dBm, class 4 +21 dBm
  • Number of unique base station identification codes: 512 / frequency
td scdma
TD-SCDMA
  • China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group (CWTS)
  • Approved by the ITU in 1999
  • Developed by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology and Siemens
  • Frequency band: 2010 MHz - 2025 MHz in China (WLL 1900 MHz - 1920 MHz)
  • Minimum frequency band required: 1.6MHz
  • Frequency re-use: 1 (or 3)
  • Chip rate: 1.28 Mcps
  • Frame length: 10ms
  • Number of slots: 7
  • Modulation: QPSK or 8-PSK
td scdma22
TD-SCDMA
  • Voice data rate: 8kbit/s
  • Circuit switched services: 12.2 kbits/s, 64 kbits/s, 144 kbits/s, 384 kbits/s, 2048 kbits/s
  • Packet data: 9.6kbits/s, 64kbits/s, 144kbits/s, 384kbits/s, 2048kbits/s
  • Receiver: Joint Detection, (mobile: Rake)
  • Power control period: 200 Hz
  • Number of slots / frame: 7
  • Frame length: 5ms
  • Multi carrier option
  • Handovers: Hard
  • Uplink synchronization
1x evdo cdma 2000
1x EVDO (CDMA 2000)
  • Qualcomm USA.
  • Frequency band: Any existing band.
  • Minimum frequency band required: 1x: 2x1.25MHz, 3x: 2x3.75
  • Chip rate: 1x: 1.2288, 3x: 3.6864 Mcps
  • Maximum user data rate: 1x: 144 kbps now, 307 kbps in the future 1xEV-DO: max 384 kbps - 2.4 Mbps, 1xEV-DV: 4.8 Mbps.
  • Frame length: 5ms, 10ms or 20ms
  • Power control rate: 800 Hz
  • Spreading factors: 4 ... 256 UL
802 16e
802.16e
  • Mobile WirelessMAN
  • Approved by IEEE Feb 2006
  • NLOS with Antenna Diversity
  • FDD / TDD
  • Multiple Convergence layers
    • IP
    • Ethernet
    • ATM
adaptive phy
Adaptive PHY

Burst-by-burst adaptivity not shown

adaptive burst profiles
Adaptive Burst Profiles
  • Burst profile
    • Modulation and FEC
  • Dynamically assigned according to link conditions
    • Burst by burst, per subscriber station
    • Trade-off capacity vs. robustness in real time
  • Roughly doubled capacity for the same cell area
  • Burst profile for downlink broadcast channel is well-known
    • All other burst profiles could be configured “on the fly”
    • Subscriber station capabilities recognized at registration
duplex scheme support
Duplex Scheme Support
  • On downlink , SS is associated with a specific burst
  • On uplink , SS is allotted a variable length time slot for their transmissions
  • Time-Division Duplex (TDD)
    • Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel
    • Dynamic asymmetry
    • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)
  • Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD)
    • Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels
    • Static asymmetry
    • Half-duplex SSs supported
      • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)
duplex scheme support31
Duplex Scheme Support
  • On downlink , SS is associated with a specific burst
  • On uplink , SS is allotted a variable length time slot for their transmissions
  • Time-Division Duplex (TDD)
    • Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel
    • Dynamic asymmetry
    • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)
  • Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD)
    • Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels
    • Static asymmetry
    • Half-duplex SSs supported
      • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)
tdd frame 10 66 ghz
TDD Frame (10-66 GHz)

n PS = (Symbol Rate x Frame Length) / 4

Downlink Subframe

Uplink Subframe

Adaptive

PS 0

PS n-1

Frame j-2

Frame j - 1

Frame j

Frame j+1

Frame j+1

tdd downlink subframe
TDD Downlink Subframe

TDM Portion

Broadcast

Control

DUIC = 0

TDM

DUIC a

TDM

DUIC b

TDM

DUIC c

Preamble

Tx/Rx Transition Gap

Preamble

DL- MAP

UL-MAP

DIUC: Downlink Interval Usage Code

burst fdd framing
Burst FDD Framing

DOWNLINK

UPLINK

Frame

Broadcast

Half Duplex Terminal #1

Full Duplex Capable User

Half Duplex Terminal #2

Allows scheduling flexibility

fdd downlink subframe
FDD Downlink Subframe

TDM Portion

Broadcast

Control

DUIC = 0

TDM

DIUC a

TDM

DIUC b

TDM

DIUC c

Preamble

TDMA Portion

TDM

DIUC d

TDM

DIUC e

TDM

DIUC f

TDM

DIUC g

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

Burst Start Points

DL-MAP

UL-MAP

Preamble

fragmentation
Fragmentation
  • Partitioning a MAC SDU into fragments transported in multiple MAC PDUs
  • Each connection can be in only a single fragmentation state at any time
  • Contents of the fragmentation sub-header:
    • 2-bit Fragmentation Control (FC)
      • Unfragmented, Last fragment, First fragment, Continuing fragment
    • 3-bit Fragmentation Sequence Number (FSN)
      • required to detect missing continuing fragments
      • continuous counter across SDUs
packing
Packing
  • The process of combining multiple MAC SDUs (or fragments thereof) into a single MAC PDU
  • On connections with variable length MAC SDUs
    • Packed PDU contains a sub-header for each packed SDU (or fragment thereof)
  • On connections with fixed length MAC SDUs
    • No packing sub-header needed
  • Packing and fragmentation can be combined
  • Can, in certain situations, save up to 10% of system bandwidth
classes of service
Classes of Service

Characteristic of the Service Flow

  • Unsolicited Grant Services (UGS)
    • for constant bit-rate (CBR) or CBR-like service flows (SFs) such as T1/E1
  • Real-time Polling Services (rtPS)
    • for rt -VBR-like SFs such as MPEG video
  • Non-real-time Polling Services (nrtPS)
    • for nrt SFs with better than best effort service such as bandwidth-intensive file transfer
  • Best Effort (BE)
    • for best-effort traffic
slide39
UGS
  • No explicit bandwidth requests issued by SS
  • Prohibited from using any contention requests
  • No unicast request opportunity provided
  • May include a Grant Management (GM) sub-containing header containing
    • Slip indicator: indicates that there is an backlog in the buffer due to clock skew or loss of maps
    • Poll-me bit: indicates that the terminal needs to be polled (allows for not polling terminals with UGS-only services).
slide40
RTPS
  • Intended for rt-VBR-like service flows such as MPEG video
  • Prohibited from using any contention requests
  • Terminals polled frequently enough to meet the delay requirements of the SFs
  • Bandwidth requested with BW request messages (a special MAC PDU header)
  • May use Grant Management sub-header
    • new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU
nrtps
NRTPS
  • Intended for non-real-time service flows with better than best effort service
    • e.g. bandwidth-intensive file transfer
  • Works like rt-polling except that polls are issued less frequently
  • Allowed to use contention requests
  • May use Grant Management sub-header
    • new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU
slide42
BE
  • Generic data
    • e.g. HTTP, SMTP, etc.
  • No QoS guarantees
  • Allowed to use contention requests
  • May use Grant Management sub-header
    • new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU
request grant scheme
Request/Grant Scheme
  • Self Correcting
    • No acknowledgement
    • All errors are handled in the same way, i.e., periodical aggregate requests
  • Bandwidth Requests are always per Connection
  • Grants are either per Connection (GPC) or per Subscriber Station (GPSS)
    • Grants (given as durations) are carried in the UL-MAP messages
    • SS needs to convert the time to amount of data using information about the UIUC
aperto
Aperto
  • 2.5 GHz, 3.3 GHz , 3.5 GHz, 5.3GHz , 5.8 GHz
  • Deployed/trialed by:
    • Iberbanda, Spain;
    • Enertel, Holland;
    • Sequelle Communications Alliance, USA
alvarion
Alvarion
  • 3.5 GHz, 5.8 GHz, 2.5 GHz
  • Summerside Community Network, USA
  • Telekom Serbia, Israel
  • Axtel, Mexico
nex g
Nex-G
  • Target licensed exempt bands initially e.g. 5.8 GHz. Subsequently licensed bands e.g. 3.5 Ghz, 2.5 Ghz
redline communications
Redline Communications
  • 3.5 GHz, 5.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz
  • Telabria, UK
  • I-Netlink Wireless, Canada;
  • Thirteen WNET/New York, USA
wilan
WiLAN
  • 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5.8GHz
  • Marathon Oil, USA
  • TM Net Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia
802 20 mobile fi
802.20 (Mobile Fi)
  • Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)
  • Below 3.5 GHz bands
  • Optimized for IP-data transport
  • Peak data rates per user in excess of 1 Mbps
  • supports various vehicular mobility classes up to 250 Km/h
  • Range up to 20 Km
  • Extremely low latency at 20 milliseconds or less
802 20 mobile fi52
802.20 (Mobile Fi)
  • The 802.20 interface seeks to boost real-time data transmission rates in wireless metropolitan area networks to speeds that rival DSL and cable connections
  • Cell sizes to commensurate with ubiquitous metropolitan
  • Targets spectral efficiencies, sustained user data rates
  • Numbers of active users significantly higher than achieved by existing mobile systems
802 20 mobile fi53
802.20 (Mobile Fi)
  • Efficient packet-based air interface with high-speed downlink and uplink capabilities
  • It will enable telephony using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and activities needing rapid network response times, such as online gaming and financial transactions
  • The standard also will support other IP-centric applications, so the many native IP applications can be used without alteration.
design criteria
Design Criteria
  • Broad Market Potential
    • Broad sets of applicability.
    • Multiple vendors and numerous users.
    • Balanced costs
  • Compatibility
    • Conformance with 802 Overview and Architecture
    • Conformance with 802.1D (MAC Bridges) and 802.1F (VLAN Bridges)
    • Conformance with 802.1F and compatible managed object definitions
    • Identification of any variance in conformance
  • Coexistence.
design criteria56
Design Criteria
  • Distinct Identity
    • Substantially different from other IEEE 802 standards.
    • One unique solution per problem.
    • Easy for the document reader to select the relevant specification.
  • Technical Feasibility
    • Demonstrated system feasibility.
    • Proven technology, reasonable testing.
    • Confidence in reliability.
  • Economic Feasibility
    • Known cost factors, reliable data.
    • Reasonable cost for performance.
    • Consideration of installation costs
802 20 vs 802 16e
802.20 vs. 802.16e
  • 802.16e - 2 to 6 GHz licensed bands, while 802.20 below 3.5GHz.
  • 802.16e - based on an existing standard (802.16a), while 802.20 is starting from scratch.
  • 802.16e – approved by IEEE February 2006, while 802.20 is under development.
  • 802.16e - 120 to 150 kilometers per hour , while 802.20 up to 250 kilometers per hour
  • 802.16e - mobile user walking around with a PDA or laptop, while 802.20 will address high-speed mobility issues
  • 80216e – deployment in their existing [.16a] footprint, while 802.20 is looking at more ubiquitous coverage.
  • Fate of both standards rests with 802.16 - if there's success in the 802.16 market, it will portend good things for the 802.20
arraycomm
System

iBurst

Access Scheme

TDMA/FDMA/SDMA

Spectrum

5 or 10 MHz TDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

1 Mbps/345 kbps (5 MHz bandwidth)

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA,

Standalone Ethernet

USB modem

Mobility

< 80 kmph

Standard affiliation

802.20

Commercialization

PBA, Australia; WBS, South Africa,8 ongoing trials

ArrayComm
flarion
System

RadioRouter

Access Scheme

Flash OFDM, Flash-OFDM Flexband

Spectrum

2x 1.25 MHz FDD,

2 x 5Mhz FDD (three 1.25Mhz carriers),

2 x 5Mhz FDD (one 5Mhz carrier)

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

1.5Mbps/500kbps, 2.5Mbps/900kbps,

6.0Mbps/2.5Mbps

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA

Desktop modem

Chipset

WiFi/FOFDM AP

Mobility

< 300 kmph

Standard affiliation

802.20

Commercialization

Nextel, North Carolina, US; CellularOne, Texas, US; Vodafone, Japan; Telstra, Australia; T-Mobile, Netherlands; OCTO (Public Safety), Washington DC, US.

Flarion
ipwirless
System

IPWireless

Access Scheme

UMTS TD-CDMA

Spectrum

5 or 10 MHz TDD

2x 5 MHz FDD

2x 10MHz FDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

1.5 Mbps/512 kbps (5 MHz bandwidth)

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA

Standalone Ethernet

USB modem

Chipset

IPWireless/WiFi gateway

VoIP Integrated Access Device

Mobility

< 120 kmph

Standardisation affiliation

3GPP UMTS TDD

Commercialisation

Woosh Wireless, NZ;

UK Broadband (PCCW);

Maxis, Malaysia; Sentech, South Africa; AirData, Germany

15 ongoing trials:

IPWirless
samsung
System

WIMAX/Wibro

Access Scheme

OFDMA

Spectrum

10 MHz TDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

3 Mbps/1 Mbps

Available Customer Device

PCMCIA

Mobility

< 120 kmph

Standard affiliation

WIMAX 802.16e

Commercialization

None yet.

Samsung
navini
System

Ripwave

Access Scheme

MC-SCDMA

Spectrum

5 MHz TDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

2.0 Mbps/1.0 Mbps (max.) for standalone and outdoor modem.

1.0 Mbps/.5 Mbps (max.) for PCMCIA

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA

Standalone Ethernet/USB modem

Outdoor Modem

Mobility

Limited low speed mobility until WIMAX 802.16e

Standard affiliation

802.20

802.16e

Commercialization

IBAX, Italy;

Unwired, Australia;

11 ongoing trials.

Navini
references
References
  • http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/20/
  • http://www.iad.gov.pk
  • IEEE 802.16 specs