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Lecture #3. What you see is what you get 1/31/13. Homework. Problems up on web site Due next Tuesday Questions??. What are organisms ’ visual tasks?. Foraging. Finding / choosing mates. Avoiding predators. Knowing when to stop. What happens to light when we see?. Today ’ s topics.

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Lecture 3

Lecture #3

What you see is what you get

1/31/13


Homework
Homework

  • Problems up on web site

  • Due next Tuesday

  • Questions??


What are organisms visual tasks
What are organisms’ visual tasks?







Today s topics
Today’s topics

  • Reflection

  • Absorption / Transmission

  • Measuring fR, fA, and fT

  • Follow the photon’s path

  • Spectral properties of light environments

    • Terrestrial

    • Aquatic

    • Energy of a photon


Light interactions
Light interactions

  • Matter will interact with light in one of 4 ways

    • Reflected

    • Absorbed

    • Transmitted = Refracted

    • Scattered

  • For now we will deal with transparent materials so scattering will be negligible


Light interactions1
Light interactions

  • Photons are conserved

    • Light going in must go somewhere

    • Iincident = ITrans + IReflect + Iabsorb = I0

  • Express as fraction of I0

    • fT + fR + fA = 1

    • fT=fraction transmitted

    • fR=fraction reflected

    • fA=fraction absorbed

Iabsorb

I0

Itrans

Ireflect


1 reflection at interface

θ1 = θ2 = 0

1. Reflection at interface

  • Light will reflect at interface between materials with different indices of refraction

  • For light perpendicular to

    surface

n=1.0

Water n=1.33


Reflection at biological interfaces is usually pretty small air water
Reflection at biological interfaces is usually pretty small: air / water

  • fR, fraction reflected

θ1 = θ2

n=1.0

Water n=1.33


2 absorption
2. Absorption air / water

  • Light will interact with molecules in material

    • It can excite molecules. If it matches electron resonance, then it will be absorbed

    • If not, it will be transmitted

  • We see what is not absorbed


In the following we assume
In the following, we assume… air / water

  • Reflection is pretty small

  • Then fT + fR + fA = 1 and fR ≈ 0 so that

    • fT + fA = 1 What does that mean???


Calculating transmission solution of concentration c
Calculating transmission – solution of concentration, C air / water

  • Beer’s law

εdepends on what substance is

C is concentration

l is the pathlength

I0

I, light transmitted through

l


Calculating transmission solution
Calculating transmission - solution air / water

  • Beer’s law

ε depends on what substance is

C is concentration

l is the pathlength

I0

I0

I

I

Low concentration High concentration

Less absorbed More absorbed

More transmitted Less transmitted


Calculating transmission solution1
Calculating transmission - solution air / water

  • Beer’s law

ε depends on what substance is

C is concentration

l is the pathlength

I0

I0

I

I

Short pathlength Longer pathlength

Less absorbed More absorbed

More transmitted Less transmitted


Calculating transmission pure substance like water
Calculating transmission - pure substance, like water air / water

  • Beer’s law

α is attenuation coefficient

I0

I

l


Units all cancel so take exponential of a unitless number
Units all cancel so take exponential of a unitless number air / water

  • ε length-1 concentration-1 = L-1 molecules-1L3

    = L2/molecule

    l length

    C concentration = molecule / L3

  • L-1

  • l L



3 measuring transmission absorption
3. Measuring transmission / absorption air / water

Measure I0 - just beam

flashlight

Fiber optic

Spectrometer


Measuring transmission absorption
Measuring transmission /absorption air / water

Measure I with object in beam

flashlight

Fiber optic

Transmission = I / I0

fT + fR + fA = 1

For small fR

fA = 1-fT

Spectrometer


For reflective objects
For reflective objects air / water

Specular reflection


For opaque objects light scatters in all directions
For opaque objects light scatters in all directions air / water

Specular reflection

Scattered

Reflected light vs scattered light



Measuring reflection scattering
Measuring reflection / scattering air / water

Fiber optic

Light source

Spectrometer

How can we measure I0?


Measuring reflection scattering1
Measuring reflection / scattering air / water

Fiber optic

Light source

Spectrometer

Measure I0 of light

Use white target that reflects all wavelengths


Measuring reflection scattering2
Measuring reflection / scattering air / water

Fiber optic

Light source

Spectrometer

Measure I reflected from object

fRorS = I / I0 fRorS + fA + fT = 1 where reflection and scattering depend on angle

For small fT fRorS = 1 - fA


Examples of absorption and reflection
Examples of absorption and reflection air / water

  • The return of the spectrometer


Why does absorption matter
Why does absorption matter? air / water

  • Retinal pigments absorb certain wavelengths

  • Biological materials

    • Photosynthesis uses light to power life

    • Wavelengths scattered depend on absorption

      • Colors of animals, food

      • Define our environment


4 the photon s path how do we see
4. The photon air / water’s path - How do we see?

Sensitivity

  • Light from a source, I

  • Reflected by object, R

  • Detected by eye, S

  • Q = I * R * S

Intensity

Reflectance

Q = quanta of light detected


What light illuminates an object
What light illuminates an object? air / water

  • Irradiance

    • Light flux on a surface - from all directions

    • Photons /s m2

Irradiance


Depending on detector set up we might measure irradiance or radiance
Depending on detector set up, we might measure irradiance or radiance

  • Irradiance

    • Light flux on a surface - from all directions

    • Photons /s m2

  • Radiance

    • Light flux from a particular direction and angle

    • Photons /s m2sr

Radiance

Irradiance


Light measurement
Light measurement radiance

  • Many light meters measure watts / m2

    • Watts are joules / s and so are related to photons / s

    • We’ll convert that in a minute

  • Some light meters measure lux

    • This is like watts / m2 but they take human sensitivity into account


Lux meter measures irradiance all angles
Lux meter (measures irradiance – all angles) radiance

Bright sunlight

20,000 lux


Eyes respond to photons
Eyes respond to photons radiance

  • Eye doesn’t care about watts

  • Chemical reactions in eye detect individual photons


Energy of light source is given in watts
Energy of light source is given in watts radiance

75 W light bulb 5 mW laser


How many photons in a watt
How many photons in a Watt radiance

  • Watt is a measure of power = energy / time

    • 1 watt = 1 J/s

  • Convert watts to photons


Energy of a photon thank planck
Energy of a photon – thank Planck radiance

  • E = hf = h c / λ

    • h is Planck’s constant = 6.6256 x 10-34 Js

    • For 400 nm light:

    • E = (6.6256 x 10-34 Js) (2.998 x 108m/s)

    • 400 x 10-9 m

    • E = 4.96 x 10-19J per photon


Energy of photon determines photons watt
Energy of photon determines #photons/watt radiance

Red laser

More photons per W at longer wavelength


Red laser
Red laser radiance

  • Laser power is 3 mW at 650 nm

  • # photons/s = Power

    • energy per photon

    • = 0.003 W

    • 3.0x10-19J/photon

    • = 9.8 x 1015 photons / s


5 natural light sources
5. Natural light sources radiance

  • Lots of variation in natural light

    • Light at high noon

    • Light at dawn, dusk

    • Light at midnight

    • Light in forest

    • Light at ocean surface

    • Light 100 m depth

  • Illuminant shapes what we can see









Solar spectrum
Solar spectrum radiance

Irradiance in watts / m2


Light spectrum in terms of photon flux
Light spectrum in terms of photon flux radiance

Since there are more photons per watt at longer wavelengths, the curve shape changes when presented as photons / m2 sec

Loew and

McFarland 1990


Compare spectra of sunlight and moonlight
Compare spectra of sunlight and moonlight radiance

Why are they similar?

Why are they different?

Loew and

McFarland 1990


Light from sun versus moon
Light from sun versus moon radiance

Moon

Sun

Earth


How does solar spectrum vary for high noon vs dawn dusk
How does solar spectrum vary for high noon vs dawn / dusk radiance

Sun angle changes with time of day

This changes pathlength through atmosphere


Dawn dusk
Dawn / dusk radiance

Lose mid to long wavelengths at dawn and dusk

Loew and McFarland 1990


Terrestrial habitats

Fleishman et al. 1997 radiance

Here are light spectra (irradiance) for forest habitats

Terrestrial habitats

Shade


Terrestrial habitats1

Fleishman et al. 1997 radiance

Terrestrial habitats

Shade

Sun




Terrestrial habitats2

Fleishman et al. 1997 chlorophylls

Terrestrial habitats

Shade

Sun


Terrestrial habitats3

Fleishman et al. 1997 chlorophylls

Terrestrial habitats

Shade

Sun


Affects of the terrestrial environment
Affects of the terrestrial environment chlorophylls

  • Lighting and contrast with background determines how easily you can be seen

    • Cryptic (camouflage) - blend in

    • Conspicuous - stand out

  • Lighting and contrast with background determines how easily your food can be detected


Light under water
Light under water chlorophylls

  • Water attenuates certain wavelengths more than others

  • αλ – attenuation coefficient varies with wavelength


Why does vary with wavelength
Why does α vary with wavelength? chlorophylls

  • Water reflection depends on wavelength

  • Water refraction depends on wavelength

  • Water absorption depends on wavelength

  • None of the above


Attenuation coefficient of pure water
Attenuation coefficient of pure water chlorophylls

  • Which wavelength light is transmitted best?

  • 350 nm

  • 450 nm

  • 550 nm

  • 650 nm

α



How can we calculate the light spectrum underwater
How can we calculate the light spectrum underwater? chlorophylls

  • We take the light spectrum at the waters surface and

  • Multiply it by the fraction of light that is transmitted


Solar illumination at different depths
Solar illumination at different depths chlorophylls

m

Incident

sunlight


Light penetration
Light penetration chlorophylls

“Blue” oceanic waters

Levine

Sci Am

1982

400 450 500 550 600 650 700 nm


Light penetration1
Light penetration chlorophylls

“Blue” oceanic waters

Levine

Sci Am

1982

400 450 500 550 600 650 700 nm


Light penetration2
Light penetration chlorophylls

“Blue” oceanic waters

Levine

Sci Am

1982

400 450 500 550 600 650 700 nm


Light at dawn dusk in air or under water
Light at dawn / dusk in air or under water chlorophylls

Loew and McFarland 1990

Note photons/s not Watts



Decrease in light intensity with depth log scale
Decrease in light intensity with depth - log scale chlorophylls

Limit of human sensitivity



Light penetration3
Light penetration chlorophylls

“Blue” oceanic waters

Color of transmitted light

Color of water

Levine

Sci Am

1982

400 450 500 550 600 650 700 nm



Different waters attenuate differently
Different waters attenuate differently chlorophylls

1+2 open ocean

3 ocean with chlorophyll

4 coastal waters with chlorophyll and dissolved organics


Fresh water
chlorophyllsFresh” water

“Green” river water

Swampy “red” waters



Aquatic environment
Aquatic environment chlorophylls

  • Depth

  • Habitat (coral reef vs ocean)

  • Camouflage - blending in

  • Light levels (especially in deep ocean)

  • Kind of water that you’re in

    • How light is transmitted / attenuated


Fishbase fish at depth viewer
FishBase: Fish at depth viewer chlorophylls

Amphiprion ocellaris


Amphiprion at depth
Amphiprion at depth chlorophylls

10 m

50 m

0 m

25 m