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KAMAAL BAJWA. History Of Computer Technology. The timeline of computers started a thousand yeas ago, with the abacus. Abacus allows users to perform computations quickly by sliding beads arranged on racks. 1642, Blaine Pascal invented a numerical wheel calculator.

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Overview page 4

The timeline of computers started a thousand yeas ago, with the abacus.

Abacus allows users to perform computations quickly by sliding beads arranged on racks.

1642, Blaine Pascal invented a numerical wheel calculator.

1812, Charles Babbage recognized the harmony between mathematics and machines.

The Analytical Engine was designed to make conditional decisions.

Babbage’s design outlined the main components of today’s multipurpose computers.

1820, Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar invented the arithometer.

With various improvements this device remained in widespread until World War 1.

Herman Hollerith invented a machine where data was stored and a machine compiled results.

This invention reduced the time of counting census from 10 years to 6 weeks

After this Hollerith made a company named International Business Machines (IBM).

OVERVIEW (PAGE 4)


First generation computers
First-Generation Computers the abacus.

  • In England, the Colossus was constructed to decode encrypted German Messages.

  • U.S. Army Ordnance and University of Pennsylvania together made the ENIAC.

  • ENIAC took 3 years to build, weighs over 30 tons, contains 19,000 tubes, 1,500 relays, and consumes about 200 kilowatts of power.

  • ENIAC could perform complex calculations faster than anything else in existence.

  • ENIAC calculated 1 min equations in 30 seconds, which would of took a skilled human being 20 hours.

  • ENIAC got wiped out by more powerful computers invented after a while such as the EDVAC and UNIVAC.


Second generation computers
Second-Generation Computers the abacus.

  • 1956, computers went from large and bulky to transistors.

  • Transistors use electrical charge to change conductive properties of transistor allowing it to alternate between insulator and conductor.

  • Conductor means it’s in an “on” state and insulator means it’s in an “off ” state.

  • Supercomputers wee used by atomic energy.

  • Same time advances in printers, tape storage, and memory made computers multifunctional.

  • Machine language a binary system of 1s and 0s communicates instructions to computers hardware.

  • An assembly language uses human code (e.g. MOV or STORE to represent 1s and 0s.

  • Scientists developed high-level languages like COBOL used for business use.

  • Scientists also developed FORTRAN for scientific research.


Third generation computers
Third-Generation Computers the abacus.

  • Integrated circuit (IC) was invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.

  • ICs produced less heat than transistors.

  • Less heat allowed more components on a chip.

  • A chip is a semiconducting substance that is as thin as a wafer.

  • Tiny electronic pathways are etched on the surface.

  • These “microchips” revolutionized computers by shrinking from a size of a room to a size of a laptop.

  • Now computers are smaller and more reliable.


Fourth generation computers
Fourth-Generation Computers the abacus.

  • With integrated chips, small chips, and smaller computers more businesses bought them.

  • First affordable computer, MITS (PC) in 1974.

  • After came Apple 1&2, and the Commodore PET.

  • 1981 IBM release first PC.

  • Original IBM PC leaded to a widespread in computer use.

  • By 1990 65 million PCs were in use.

  • After 20 years since first PC released, about 1 billion computers used worldwide.

  • Both computer hardware and software was rapidly evolving.

  • UNIX and WINDOWS are very complicated software's compared to 1930s.

  • Without computers in todays society, that will be extremely difficult.



Hardware input output devices
Hardware & Input/output Devices the abacus.

  • Hardware is physical components of computer.

  • Input devices allow you to enter information and computer does the rest.

  • Keyboard and mouse most used for inputting devices.

  • Other input devices, scanners, digitizing pads, etc.

  • Another example is voice command in computers.

  • All these devices tell computer what to do.

  • Output tells us what the computers doing.

  • Old computers use banks of lights for output.

  • Most common output device is monitor.

  • This is hooked to computer card and creates a picture onscreen.

  • Printers facilitate information from computer to paper.


Processors memory
Processors & Memory the abacus.

  • Central processing unit most important component for computer.

  • CPU brains of computer.

  • Capable of performing millions of basic functions in one second.

  • Any information in CPU gets broken down into millions of tiny transistors.

  • CPU alone has no memory.

  • Random-access memory (RAM) is where info from CPU goes.

  • RAM isn’t a long term solution.

  • When computer turns off then all info on RAM is deleted.


Hard drives removable storage
Hard Drives & Removable Storage the abacus.

  • Long term storage of data could be hard drives, CD-ROMs,etc.

  • Storage capacity is how many bits of data medium can store.

  • On and Off states represented by Binary digiTS (BITS).

  • Eight bits is called a byte.

  • Primary storage device in computer is the hard drive.

  • Hard drive store data on magnetic platters made of aluminum or glass.

  • Laptop hold 60 gigabytes or more.

  • Hard drives aren’t portable.

  • Floppy disk are now being placed by more capable storage types.


Networks
Networks the abacus.

  • Networking is most explosive growth area in computer industry.

  • Since its feasible to connect computers everyone has a network.

  • Only some small businesses don’t have a network.

  • In networking media are the physical connections.

  • When media connect network to computers it’s called nodes.

  • Each node has network face card which allows data back and forth.

  • Layout of network is called topology.

  • Nodes can also be connected to a server.

  • Server holds data that everyone on the server can use.


Operating systems
Operating Systems the abacus.

  • Operating systems manage the hard ware and software.\

  • CPU performs one operation at a time, and the system can old only so much info.

  • Operating system manages applications from software to hardware.

  • User interacts with computer through interface.

  • API helps programmers create applications that function consistently.

  • Operating systems fall into several categories, familiar is one user.

  • User can tap resources of one computer to perform multiple tasks.

  • Windows and Mac0S are examples of these systems.

  • Multiuser operating systems allow multiple users to tap resources on a single computer.


Software applications
Software Applications the abacus.

  • Desktop software runs on little hardware and has to be installed into computer for use.

  • This idea is changing as more people are connecting to internet.

  • Modern software divides tasks performed on desktop and data received.

  • Desktop software is categorized by the function it serves.

  • For instance there are so many applications on a computer.

  • Each category may also have divisions in it.

  • Within utility category one might find antivirus utilities, disk utilities,etc.