psyc512 research methods lecture 18
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
PSYC512: Research Methods Lecture 18

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

PSYC512: Research Methods Lecture 18 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 128 Views
  • Uploaded on

PSYC512: Research Methods Lecture 18. Brian P. Dyre University of Idaho. Lecture 18 Outline. Research Proposal Information Writing Research Proposal The Art of Peer Review Addressing Reviewer’s Comments Inferential Statistics Testing for differences

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'PSYC512: Research Methods Lecture 18' - talon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
psyc512 research methods lecture 18

PSYC512: Research MethodsLecture 18

Brian P. Dyre

University of Idaho

PSYC512: Research Methods

lecture 18 outline
Lecture 18 Outline
  • Research Proposal Information
    • Writing Research Proposal
    • The Art of Peer Review
    • Addressing Reviewer’s Comments
  • Inferential Statistics
    • Testing for differences
      • Determining if a sample represents a population
      • Determining if two or more samples differ
    • Testing for relationships
      • Form of relationship
      • Strength of relationship

PSYC512: Research Methods

writing a research proposal
Writing a Research Proposal
  • Purpose of Research Proposal
    • Present a literature review defining concepts and intervening variables pertinent to research question
    • Present a specific research question with explicit hypotheses to be tested
    • Develop a plan for addressing that research question empirically, including descriptions of
      • Target population and subject sampling
      • The research design, including explicit definition of independent and dependent variables and how the stimuli and procedures implement these variables
      • Aspects of stimuli and procedures that control for extraneous and confounding variables
      • Types of analyses to be used, predicted results, and how these predictions relate to the hypotheses

PSYC512: Research Methods

research proposals global concerns
Research Proposals: Global Concerns
  • Scientific Writing Style
    • Precision more important than entertainment, but…
    • Research is part science and part advertising – not only do you need to develop good ideas but you must be able to sell your ideas
    • Proposal is often the basis of first impression for the quality of the research project
  • Proposal must be clear on ALL levels of analysis
    • Words
    • Sentences
    • Paragraphs OUTLINE!
    • Sections

PSYC512: Research Methods

research proposals global concerns5
Research Proposals: Global Concerns
  • APA guidelines
    • Orderly expression of ideas - organization
    • Smoothness of expression - transitions
    • Economy of expression - concise language
    • Precision and clarity – use scientific vocabulary “jargon” correctly and insure that all terms are defined the first time they are used

PSYC512: Research Methods

organization of a research proposal apa style
Organization of a Research Proposal: APA STYLE
  • Title Page – title should specifically describe what the paper is about so that it is useful information for other researchers’ literature searches
  • Abstract
    • essentially a mini-paper for lit. searches
    • be extremely CONCISE! (< 150 words)
    • introduce specific topic
    • discuss variables, etc.
    • present major results (no statistics!)
    • discuss important conclusions

PSYC512: Research Methods

organization of a research proposal apa style7
Organization of a Research Proposal : APA STYLE
  • Introduction
    • Purpose
      • Demonstrate knowledge of relevant research
      • Define intervening variables and their relation to manipulations and measurements used in previous research
      • Present and justify research question and hypotheses
      • Present and justify the general method to be used
    • Organization
      • Start broad then narrow to your general purpose
      • Discuss only relevant research in a logical flow
      • Near the end provide an explicit statement of hypotheses and an overview of the general research design

PSYC512: Research Methods

organization of a research proposal apa style8
Organization of a Research Proposal: APA STYLE
  • Method
    • explicitly state how variables are manipulated
    • define in separate sub-sections
      • Participants (subjects)
      • Design
      • Stimuli/Apparatus/Materials
      • Procedures
  • Results
    • Describe the Scales of IVs and DVs
    • Describe Transformations of DVs
    • Summarized planned statistical analyses
    • Summarize predictions

PSYC512: Research Methods

important elements of style brian s pet peeves
Important Elements of Style (Brian’s pet peeves)
  • Define scientific terms (“jargon”) and abbreviations at first use, then use terms consistently
  • Do not use informal or colloquial language
    • e.g., you don’t “run” subjects, you test subjects
  • Ambiguous pronouns: if you use the word “it” make sure the surrounding context makes the meaning of the word “it” obvious, otherwise avoid using it (as in “it”)
  • Sexist pronouns (he vs. she) – word sentences to avoid having to use these if at all possible, or use “he or she”

PSYC512: Research Methods

important elements of style brian s pet peeves10
Important Elements of Style (Brian’s pet peeves)
  • Verb tense
    • Introduction Section:
      • Discussion of specific previous research  past tense,
      • Discussion of ideas or concepts that are general for all time and not linked to specific moment in the past present tense
    • Method and results
      • Proposal: future tense
      • research report: past tense

PSYC512: Research Methods

important elements of style brian s pet peeves11
Important Elements of Style (Brian’s pet peeves)
  • Plural/singular mismatches
  • Passive voice – word sentences in active voice
  • Superfluous, imprecise language (e.g., avoid vague adverbs—search for all words ending in “ly” and consider eliminating them)
  • Style issues like “that” vs. “which”
  • For more information on writing style I recommend:
    • Strunk, W., jr., and White, E.B. (2000) The Elements of Style, 4th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

PSYC512: Research Methods

the art of peer review
The Art of Peer Review
  • Example review available online in lecture schedule
  • Goal: Assist author in improving the clarity and impact of the paper (or proposal) by offering specific constructive criticism (no name calling!) and complements (where appropriate)
  • Structure
    • Summary
    • Major (or general) criticisms (typically <=3)
    • Minor (specific) criticisms (any number, specifically listed by page and line number)

PSYC512: Research Methods

addressing reviewer s comments
Addressing Reviewer’s Comments
  • Never blame a reviewer for a negative review
    • Consider all criticism as constructive—the reviewer is trying to help you!
    • Assume misunderstandings are your fault, not the reviewers. All misunderstandings occur because you did not write clearly enough
  • The cover letter (required with submission of revised proposal)
    • Specifically responds to the reviewers comments by
      • describing specific changes made in the paper to address criticisms
      • Presenting a rationale for why a reviewer’s criticism was not addressed
    • Must be worded very diplomatically!

PSYC512: Research Methods

presenting research
Presenting Research
  • Time-allotted: 20 minutes  strictly enforced!
  • Use same general format as the written report
    • introduction (roughly 10 minutes)
    • method (roughly 8 minutes)
    • Summary (2 minutes or so)
    • Given time allotted you cannot go into the same level of detail as your written report
  • Materials
    • Talk from an outline of points you wish to make
    • Visual Aids  power point
  • Elements of Style
  • PRACTICE YOUR PRESENTATION!
  • Anticipate questions and how you will answer them

PSYC512: Research Methods

using inferential statistics
Using Inferential Statistics
  • Which Statistic?
    • The statistical decision tree Howell Figure 1.1
  • Testing for relationships vs. differences (a false distinction)
    • Relationships: assessing the strength of relationship between measured (dependent) variables
    • Differences: comparing different groups or treatments on some measurement
      • But what causes those differences? The relationship between the independent variable defining the groups or treatment and the dependent variable
      • Hence, testing for differences is really testing the relationship between the IV and DV

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 5
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 5)
  • Bernoulli Trials: series of independent trials that result in one of two mutually exclusive outcomes
    • E.g. coin flips, gender of babies born, increase of decrease in a measure after application of a treatment
  • The Binomial Distribution

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 517
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 5)
  • Using the binomial distribution
    • Mean number of successes = Np
    • Variance in number of successes = Npq
  • Testing Hypotheses using the binomial distribution: The Sign Test
    • Ho is typically p= q = .50 (50-50 chance of success of failure), but that doesn’t have to be the case
    • H1 is typically p ≠q
    • Plug in values for N, X, p, and q and p(X) directly provides the probability that the pattern of data could result given the null hypothesis is true
    • Sum the probabilities p(X) for all number >= X to get the total probability of finding p(>=X)
    • Important: The sign test takes into account direction of differences but not magnitude

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 518
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 5)
  • What about multiple (more than 2) possible outcomes?
    • Multinomial distribution

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 519
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 5)
  • Using the multinomial distribution
    • Mean Xk = NpXk
    • Variance in Xk = NpXk (1-pXk)
  • Testing Hypotheses using the multinomial distribution:
    • Ho is typically pX1= pX2 … = pXk = 1/k (each outcome has the same chance), but that doesn’t have to be the case
    • H1 is typically pX1≠ pX2 …≠ pXk
    • Plug in values for N, X, and pX, and p(X1, X2…Xk) directly provides the probability that this particular pattern of data could result given the null hypothesis is true
    • Must sum the probabilities for all patterns that deviate equal to or more to get the total probability – time consuming!

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 6
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 6)
  • Easier Alternative to Multinomial distribution: Chi-square (c2) test
  • Compare computed value of c2 to value of c2 distribution with df=k-1
  • Expected frequencies for the null hypothesis typically = N/k, where N is the total number of observations

k is the number of categories in the variable

O is the observed frequency for each category

E is the expected frequency for each category

i is the category index

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 621
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 6)
  • Using c2 with multiple dimensions: contingency tables—frequencies of one dimension are contingent on the other dimension
  • Eij = RiCj/N
  • N is the total number of observations
  • Compare computed value of c2 to value of c2 distribution with df=(R-1)(C-1)

R is the number of categories in the dimension defined by the rows of the table

C is the number of categories in the dimension defined by the columns of the table

O is the observed frequency for each category

E is the expected frequency for each category

i and j are category indices

PSYC512: Research Methods

analyzing frequencies howell chapter 622
Analyzing Frequencies (Howell, Chapter 6)
  • Assumptions of the c2test
    • Each observation is independent
    • Inclusion of non-occurrences

PSYC512: Research Methods

ad