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How to Use This Presentation. How to Use This Presentation. • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show” , or simply press F5 on the top row of your keyboard.

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    1. How to Use This Presentation How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show”, or simply press F5 on the top row of your keyboard. • To advance to the next slide click the left mouse button once. • From the Chapter screen you can click on any section to go directly to that section’s presentation. • Blank or “missing” areas of a slide will remain hidden until the left mouse button is clicked. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

    2. Resources Bellringers Chapter Presentation Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Image and Math Focus Bank

    3. Chapter P1 The World of Life Science Table of Contents Section 1Asking About Life Section 2Scientific Methods Section 3Scientific Models Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety

    4. Section1 Asking About Life Chapter P1 Bellringer • Write five questions about natural world. • Share your questions with the class.

    5. Section1 Asking About Life Chapter P1 Objectives • Explainthe importance of asking questions in science. • Stateexamples of life science at work. • List three ways life science is beneficial to living things.

    6. Section1 Asking About Life Chapter P1 It All Starts with a Question • Life Scienceis the study of living things. • In your Own BackyardYou can ask questions about familiar organisms. • Touring the WorldThe questions you ask about your neighborhood are just a sample of all the questions you could ask about the world.

    7. Section1 Asking About Life Chapter P1 Life Scientists • Who are life scientists? • Anyone Women and Men from any cultural background can become life scientists. • Anywhere Life scientists carry out investigations in laboratories, on farms, in forests, on the ocean floor––even in space! • Anything Life scientists study any thing that is a live, or that used to be alive, that interests them.

    8. Section1 Asking About Life Chapter P1 Why Ask Questions? • Fighting Diseases Science has led to many life-saving discoveries, such as the vaccination for polio. • Understanding Inherited Diseases By learning about how some diseases are inherited and how they affect people, scientists hope to find ways to prevent or cure these diseases.

    9. Section1 Asking About Life Chapter P1 Why Ask Questions? continued • Protecting the Environment Understanding how we affect the world around us is the first step in finding solutions to problems such as pollution and the extinction of wildlife.

    10. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Bellringer Write a brief response to this question: “Which is more important, imagination or knowledge?” Write your response in your science journal.

    11. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Objectives • Describe scientific methods. • Determine the appropriate design of a controlled experiment. • Use information in tables and graphs to analyze experimental results. • Explain how scientific knowledge can change.

    12. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 What Are Scientific Methods? • Scientific methods are the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems.

    13. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Ask a Question • Asking a question helps focus the purpose of the investigation. Scientists often ask a question after making an observation. • For example, students observing deformed frogs might ask, “Could something in the water be causing the deformities?”

    14. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Make Observations • Accurate Observations Any information that you gather through your senses is an observation. Scientist use standard tools and methods to make and record observations.

    15. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Form a Hypothesis • A hypothesis is a possible explanation or answer to a question that is based on observation and can be tested. • A statement of cause and effect that can be used to set up a test for a hypothesis is called a prediction.

    16. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 A Hypothesis Makes Predictions

    17. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Test the Hypothesis • Under Control A controlled experiment tests only one factor at a time and consists of a control group and one or more experimental groups.

    18. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Test the Hypothesis, continued • Designing an Experiment Designing a good experiment requires planning and a consideration of all factors. • Collecting Data Scientists keep clear, accurate, honest records of their data so that other scientists can repeat the experiment and verify the results.

    19. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Analyze the Results • After they finish their tests, scientists must analyze the results. Analyzing the results helps scientists explain and focus on the effect of the variable.

    20. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Draw Conclusions • Scientists must conclude if the results of their tests support the hypothesis. Proving that a hypothesis is not true can be as valuable as proving that it is true.

    21. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1 Communicate Results • After finishing an investigation, scientists communicate their results. • Sharing allows other scientists to repeat experiments to see if they get the same results. • Sometimes, new data lead scientists to change their hypotheses.

    22. Section2 Scientific Methods Chapter P1

    23. Section 3Scientific Models Chapter P1 Bellringer Answer the following questions in your Science Journal: What is a model? Name several types of models. What models have you used?

    24. Section 3Scientific Models Chapter P1 Objectives • Give examples of three types of models. • Identify the benefits and limitations of models. • Compare the ways that scientists use hypotheses, theories, and laws.

    25. Section 3Scientific Models Chapter P1 Types of Scientific Models • Physical Models Physical models, such as miniature volcanoes and steam engines, look like the thing that they model. • Mathematical Models A mathematical model may be made up of numbers, equations, and other forms of data. Charts and graphs are examples of mathematical models.

    26. Section3 Scientific Models Chapter P1 Mathematical Model: A Punnett Square • The Punnett square helps scientists study the passing of traits from parents to offspring.

    27. Section 3Scientific Models Chapter P1 Types of Scientific Models, continued • Conceptual Models Conceptual models are systems of ideas or comparisons of unfamiliar things with familiar things to help explain unfamiliar ideas.

    28. Section 3Scientific Models Chapter P1 Building Scientific Knowledge • Scientific Theories An explanation that ties together many related observations, facts, and tested hypotheses is called a theory. • Scientific Laws A scientific law is a statement of what will happen in a specific situation. A law tells you how things work. • Scientific Change If new evidence challenges an accepted idea, scientists must reexamine the old evidence and reevaluate the old idea.

    29. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Bellringer Write an answer in your science journal to the following question: Why do you think scientists use tools such as graduated cylinders and stopwatches?

    30. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Objectives • Give three examples of how life scientists use computers and technology. • Describe three tools life scientists use or observe organisms. • Explain the importance of the International System of Units, and give four examples of SI units.

    31. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Computers and Technology • Technology is the application of sciences for practical purposes. • Computers are used to create graphs, solve complex equations, and analyze and communicate data.

    32. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Tools for Seeing • Compound Light Microscope is an instrument that uses two or more lenses to magnify small organisms. • Electron Microscopes focuses a beam of electrons to magnify objects. • Although electron microscopes produce clearer and more detailed images than light microscope, they cannot be used to observe living things.

    33. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Units of Measurement • The International System of Units Begun by the French Academy of Sciences in the late 1700s, the SI is used by almost all countries in the world. • All SI units are based on the number 10, which makes conversion from one unit to another easy.

    34. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1

    35. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Measurement • Length The basic unit of length in the SI is the meter. • Area The measure of how much surface an object has. Use the following equation: area  length  width • Volume The measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space.

    36. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Measurement, continued • Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object. • Temperature The measure of how hot (or cold) something is.

    37. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Measuring Temperature

    38. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1

    39. Section 4Tools, Measurement, and Safety Chapter P1 Safety Rules! • Follow your teacher’s instructions. • Read lab procedures carefully. • Pay special attention to safety information.

    40. The World of Life Science Chapter P1 Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide.

    41. The World of Life Science Chapter P1

    42. The World of Life Science Chapter P1

    43. End of Chapter P1 Show

    44. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage.

    45. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 Passage 1Zoology is the study of animals. Zoology dates back more than 2,300 years, to ancient Greece. There, the philosopher Aristotle observed and theorized about animal behavior. About 200 years later, Galen, a Greek physician, began dissecting and experimenting with animals. Continued on the next slide

    46. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 Passage 1, continuedHowever, there were few advances in zoology until the 1700s and 1800s. During this period, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus developed a classification system for plants and animals, and British naturalist Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection.

    47. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 1.According to the passage, when did major advances in Zoology begin? Aabout 2,300 years ago Babout 2,100 years ago Cduring the 1700s and 1800s Donly during recent history

    48. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 1.According to the passage, when did major advances in Zoology begin? Aabout 2,300 years ago Babout 2,100 years ago C during the 1700s and 1800s Donly during recent history

    49. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 2. Which of the following is a possible meaning of the word naturalist, as used in the passage? Fa scientist who studies plants and animals Ga scientist who studies animals Ha scientist who studies theory Ia scientist who studies animal behavior

    50. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter P1 2. Which of the following is a possible meaning of the word naturalist, as used in the passage? Fa scientist who studies plants and animals Ga scientist who studies animals Ha scientist who studies theory Ia scientist who studies animal behavior