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1-1 Overview 1-2 The Nature of Data 1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics 1-4 Design of Experiments. Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics.

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1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

1-1 Overview

1-2 The Nature of Data

1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics

1-4 Design of Experiments

Chapter 1

Introduction to Statistics


The most dangerous profession

A Swiss physician compiled longevity data for different professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

Is being a student really more dangerous?

The most dangerous profession?


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Statistics professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

Two Meanings

Specific numbers

Method of analysis

1-1 Overview


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Specific number professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

numerical measurement determined by a set of data

Example: Twenty-three percent of people polled believed that there are too many polls.

Statistics


Statistics

Method of analysis professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data

Statistics


Definitions

Population professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied.

Definitions


Definitions1

Census professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

the collection of data from every element in a population

Sample

a subcollection of elements drawn from a population

Definitions


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

1-2 professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)The Nature of Data


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Parameter professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

Definitions


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Parameter professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

Definitions

population

parameter


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Statistic

  • a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

sample professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

statistic

Definitions

  • Statistic

  • a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • numbers representing counts or measurements


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • numbers representing counts or measurements

  • Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data

  • can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristics


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • the incomes of college graduates


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • the incomes of college graduates

  • Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data

  • the genders (male/female) of college graduates


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values

0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

Definitions


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values

0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

Continuous

(numerical) data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps

Definitions

2

3


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day.

Definitions


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day.

Continuous

The amounts of milk that cows produce; for example, 2.343115 gallons a day.

Definitions


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Nominal professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)- categories only

Ordinal- categories with some order

Interval- differences but no natural starting point

Ratio- differences and a natural starting point

Levels of Measurement


1 1 overview 1 2 the nature of data 1 3 uses and abuses of statistics

Nominal professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)- categories only

Ordinal- categories with some order

Interval- differences but no natural starting point

Ratio- differences and a natural starting point

Levels of Measurement