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Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy is defined as : The study of the structure and shape of the organs and systems of the Human Body and their Structural relationships to one another . Physiology is defined as

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Presentation Transcript
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Anatomy is defined as :

    • The study of the structure and shape of the organs and systems of the Human Body and their Structural relationships to one another
slide4

Physiology is defined as

    • The functions of the parts of the human body and the interaction of anatomic systems forming the human body as a whole
characteristics of life
Characteristics of life
  • Structure
  • Biochemical reactions
  • Responsiveness- to maintain Homeostasis
  • Reproduction
    • Growth-to gain mass
    • Development-different abilities (diffferentiation)
characteristics of life1
Characteristics of life
  • Adaptation and evolution
goal of almost all body systems is to maintain life
Goal of almost all body systems is to maintain life
  • Survival needs include
    • Water
    • Food
    • Oxygen
    • Heat
    • Atmospheric Pressure
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • The body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is constantly changing
  • Every organ system plays a role in maintaining stability
homeostasis1
Homeostasis
  • Homeostatic Regulation:physiological adjustments
    • Receptor –sensitive to stimulus
    • Effector-activity has an effect on the stimulus
  • Negative feedback effector that is activated by the control center opposes the stimulus
  • Positive Feedback-response reinforces the stimulus
level of organization
Level of Organization
  • Molecular
  • Cell
  • Tissue
  • Organ
  • Organ system
  • Organism
  • Each level is dependent of the others
organ systems
Organ systems
  • Integumentary : skin
  • Skeletal
  • Muscular
  • Nervous
  • Endocrine
  • Cardiovascular
  • Lymphatic: defense against infection/disease
  • Respiratory
  • Digestive
organ systems1
Organ systems
  • Urinary
  • Reproductive
anatomical directions
Anatomical Directions
  • Costal-ribs
  • coxal-hip
  • Crural-leg
  • Cubital- elbow
  • Digital- finger
  • Dorsal-back
  • Femoral- thigh
  • Frontal- forehead
  • Genital reproductive organs
anatomical directions1
Anatomical Directions
  • Inguinal-depressed area of the abdomen near the thigh
  • Dorsal Cavity-back of the body
    • Cranial cavity-brain
    • Vertebral cavity-spinal cord, spine
  • Ventral cavity-front or stomach
    • Thoracic cavity-
      • Pleural-lungs
ventral cavity
Ventral Cavity
  • Thoracic con’t-
    • Mediastinal- esophagus/trachia/major blood vessels
    • Periocardial-heart
  • Abdominopelvic
    • Abdominal cavity-digestive organs
    • Pelvic- reproductive/urinary
thoracic membranes
Thoracic Membranes
  • Pleural Membrane
    • Parietal Pleural Membrane-line inside of the pleural cavity
    • Visceral Pleural Membrare-adheres to the surface of lungs
  • Periocardial Membrane
    • Parietal Periocardial Membrane- line inside of periocardial cavity
    • Visceral Periocardial Membrane- adheres to the surface of the heart
abdominal membrane
Abdominal Membrane
  • Peritoneal Membrane
    • Parietal peritoneal Membrane/Parietal peritoneum-lines inside of abdominal cavity
    • Visceral Peritoneum-adheres to the surface of the stomach
directional terms
Directional Terms
  • Superior (cranial or cephalic)
  • Inferior –caudal
  • Anterior- ventral
  • Posterior- Dorsal
  • Medial- midline
  • Lateral- away from the longitudinal axis
  • Proximal-toward an attached base, toward the trunk
  • Distal- away from an attached base, away from the trunk