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Chapter 8 Financial Planning and Control. Financial Planning and Control. Financial Planning: The projection of sales, income, and assets based on alternative production and marketing strategies, as well as the determination of the resources needed to achieve these projections

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 8

Financial Planning and Control

financial planning and control
Financial Planning and Control
  • Financial Planning:
    • The projection of sales, income, and assets based on alternative production and marketing strategies, as well as the determination of the resources needed to achieve these projections
  • Financial Control
    • The phase in which financial plans are implemented, control deals with the feedback and adjustment process required to ensure adherence to plans and modification of plans because of unforeseen changes.
financial planning the sales forecast
Financial Planning: The Sales Forecast
  • A forecast of a firm’s unit and dollar sales for some future period, generally based on recent sales trends plus forecasts of the economic prospects for the nation, region, industry, etc.
projected pro forma financial statements
Projected (Pro Forma) Financial Statements
  • A method of forecasting financial requirements based on forecasted financial statements
  • AFN = additional funds needed to support the level of forecasted operations
  • Determine how much money the firm will need in a given period.
  • Determine how much money the firm will generate internally during the same period.
  • Subtract the funds generated internally from the funds required to determine the external financial requirements.
slide5

Step 1. Forecast the 2014 Income Statement

Unilate Textiles Company

  • Assumptions:
  • Unilate operated at full capacity in 2013.
  • Sales are expected to grow by 10 percent.
  • The variable cost ratio remains at 82 percent (same as 2013).
  • 2014 dividend per share will be the same as in 2013.
step 3 raising the additional funds needed
Step 3. Raising the Additional Funds Needed
  • Higher sales must be supported by higher assets.
  • Asset increase can be financed by spontaneous increases in accounts payable and accruals and by retained earnings.
  • Any short fall must be financed from external sources--by borrowing or by selling new stock.

Unilate has decided that any additional funds needed to support future operations will be raised mainly by issuing new common stock.

step 4 financing feedbacks
Step 4. Financing Feedbacks

The effects on the income statement and balance sheet of actions taken to finance forecasted increases in assets

suppose in 2013 fixed assets had been operated at only 80 of capacity

$1

,

500

$1

,

875

million.

=

=

0

.

80

Suppose in 2013 fixed assets had been operated at only 80% of capacity:

Other Considerations in Forecasting: Excess Capacity

other considerations in forecasting economies of scale
Other Considerations in Forecasting: Economies of Scale
  • Unilate’s variable cost ratio is 82% of sales.
  • Ratio might decrease to 80% if operations increase significantly.

Changes in variable cost ratio affect the addition to retained earnings which affects the amount of AFN.

other considerations in forecasting lumpy assets
Other Considerations in Forecasting: Lumpy Assets
  • Assets that cannot be acquired in small increments, but must be obtained in large, discrete amounts
summary how different factors affect the afn forecast
Summary: How different factors affect the AFN forecast.
  • Dividend payout ratio changes.
    • If reduced, more RE, reduce AFN.
  • Profit margin changes.
    • If increases, total and retained earnings increase, reduce AFN.
  • Plant capacity changes.
    • Less capacity used, less need for AFN.
  • Payment terms increased to 60 days.
    • Accts. payable would double, increasing liabilities, reduce AFN.
financial control budgeting and leverage
Financial Control - Budgeting and Leverage
  • The phase in which financial plans are implemented; control deals with the feedback and adjustment processes required to ensure the firm is following the right financial path to accomplish its goals, and, if not, to make necessary corrections.
operating breakeven analysis
Operating Breakeven Analysis
  • An analytical technique for studying the relationship between sales revenues, operating costs, and profits
  • Operating breakeven analysis deals only with the upper portion of the income statement - the portion from sales to NOI
operating breakeven chart

Revenues & Costs

Total Sales Revenues (P x Q)

1,400

1,200

1,000

600

400

0

Operating Profit(EBIT > 0)

Total OperatingCosts (F + Q x V)

SOpBE =

Operating BreakevenPoint (EBIT = 0)

856

800

Operating

Loss(EBIT < 0)

Total Fixed Costs (F)

200

154

0 20 40 57 60 80 100 120

Units QOpBE

Operating Breakeven Chart
breakeven computation

Sales Total operating Total Totalrevenues costs variable costs fixed costs

=

=

+

F

Contribution margin

F

P-V

QOpBE

=

=

$154.0 million$15.00 - $12.30

$154.0 million$2.70

QOpBE

=

=

=

57.04 million units 57.0 million units

Breakeven Computation

(P x Q) = TOC = (V x Q) + F

operating breakeven point

F

F

Gross profit margin

SOpBE

=

=

(

)

V

P

1-

$154.0 $12.30$15.00

SOpBE

$154.0 1 - 0.82

$154.0 0.18

=

=

=

=

855.6 million

(

)

1-

Operating Breakeven Point

For the proposal to break even, Unilate must sell 57 million units or $855,600,000 of product.

operating leverage
Operating Leverage
  • The existence of fixed operating costs, such that a change in sales will produce a larger change in operating income (EBIT)
  • The percentage change in NOI (or EBIT) associated with a given percentage change in sales
calculating the degree of operating leverage

Gross Prof

it

DOL

=

S

EBIT

$297$143

=

=

2.08x

Calculating the Degree of Operating Leverage

Each 1 percent change in sales, will result in a 2.08 percent change in operating income.

financial breakeven analysis
Financial Breakeven Analysis
  • Determining the operating income (EBIT) the firm needs to just cover all of its fixed financing costs and produce earnings per share equal to zero
financial breakeven computation

Earnings available to common stockholders

EPS =

= 0

Number of common shares outstanding

(EBIT - I)(1 - T) - Dps

=

= 0

Shrsc

Dps

EBITFinBE = I +

(1 - T)

Financial Breakeven Computation

= $41.4 + 0 = $41.4

financial leverage
Financial Leverage
  • The existence of fixed financial costs such as interest and preferred dividends when a change in EBIT results in a larger change in EPS
unilate textiles degree of financial leverage

EBIT

EBIT

DFL

=

=

-

-

[financial BEP]

EBIT

I

EBIT

$143.0

$143.0

DFL110

1.41x

=

=

=

$101.6

$143.0 - $41.4

Unilate Textiles:Degree of Financial Leverage
degree of total leverage

Gross profit

DTL

=

- [Financial BEP]

EBIT

S - VC

Q(P - V)

=

=

- I

[Q (P - V) - F] - I

EBIT

$297.0

=

=

2.92x

$101.6

Degree of Total Leverage

= DOL x DFL = 2.08 x 1.41 = 2.92x

importance of forecasting and control functions
Importance of Forecasting and Control Functions
  • If projected operating results are not satisfactory, management can reformulate its plans.
  • If funds required to meet sales forecast cannot be obtained, management can sale back projected levels of operations.
  • If required funds can be raised, it is best to plan for their acquisition in advance.
  • Any deviation from projections needs to be handled to improve future forecasts.