10th Grade Root Word and SAT Vocabulary
a-ab- : outside of, not abdicate, abnegation, abridge, abstract absent abnormal abstinence abolish • abstruse • adj. hard to understand; recondite; esoteric: abstruse theories. • No one at the lecture could follow the scientist’s abstruse theories about the origins of the universe.
-age : state of manage, mortgage, patronage, pilgrimage, visage usage sage • presage • n. something that portends or foreshadows an event • v. to foreshadow, predict, or forecast • Successful sales of the latest smart phone may presage a rise in technology stocks.
ac-, ad- : to, toward admit, admonish, accelerate, accessible • adversity • n. a condition marked by misfortune, calamity, or distress; an unfortunate event or circumstance • Many politicians describe their struggle to overcome adversity in an attempt to relate to constituents.
-al-ial : like, pertaining to corporeal, social, filial, economical, editorial, celestial • peripheral • adj.Not relating to the most important part of something; incidental; minor; on or near the periphery • The doctor chose to begin treating the most serious trauma victims first, leaving the peripheral cases to wait.
ambi, amphi : both amphibious, ambiguous, amphitheater, ambidextrous • ambivalent • adj.undecided or simultaneously having opposite or conflicting feelings, such as love and hate • Susan couldn’t help but feel ambivalent about being offered the promotion over her best friend.
-ance-ence : state of distance, entrance, difference, eloquence • pestilence n.a deadly or virulent epidemic disease; something that is considered harmful, destructive, or evil. Advances in water purification, sanitation, and antibiotic medicines have limited the kinds of pestilence faced by previous generations.
-ant : one who servant, assistant • savant • n.a person of profound or extensive learning; learned scholar. • Stephen Hawking is considered by many to be one of the great savants of modern science.
anti- : against anticlimactic, antipathy, antipersonnel • antithesis • n.opposition, contrast; the direct opposite. • The brutal war crimes were the antithesis of the government's peacekeeping policy.
anthropo : man/mankind anthropology, misanthrope, philanthropy • anthropomorphic • adj.ascribing human form or attributes to a being or thing not human, especially to a deity. • The “Dog Whisperer” urges pet owners to resist their anthropomorphic tendencies.
audaus : hear audition, auditor, applause, laud • auditory • adj. - pertaining to hearing, to the sense of hearing, or to the organs of hearing. • The doctor counseled his patient that continuing to listen to extremely loud music could impair auditory function.
cata : lower in position catacomb, catatonic, catalepsy • cataclysm • n.any violent upheaval, especially one of a social or political nature. • Many feel that a volcanic event in Yellowstone National Park will be the nation’s next great cataclysm.
circum : around circumference, circular, circus, circumnavigate • circumspect • adj.watchful and discreet; cautious; prudent; well-considered • Though the caller seemed sincere about my winning a valuable prize, I remained circumspect.
ciscise : cut incision, precise, incisor • excise • n.an internal tax or duty on certain commodities, as liquor or tobacco, levied on their manufacture, sale, or consumption within the country. • v.to impose and excise • The congressman questioned the effect of excising products imported from China on our nation’s economy.
cludclus : shut include, exclude, preclude • occlude • v.to close, shut, or stop up (a passage, opening, etc.). • Storm drains, occluded by debris, could not handle the amount of water generated by the storm.
corcordis : heart concord, discord, courage • cordial • adj. courteous and gracious; friendly; warm; sincere • I could not believe that Sally, my mortal enemy since third grade, was actually cordial on my birthday.
curro : run occur, excursion, courier • concurrent • adj. occurring or existing simultaneously or side by side • Some students find time to finish high school while concurrently enrolling in some college courses.
demo : people democracy, demagogue, epidemic • demographics • n. the statistical data of a population, especially those showing average age, income, education, etc. • The campaign studied the demographics of the state and focused their efforts on key cities and neighborhoods.
derma : skin dermatology, epidermis, taxidermy • hypodermic • adj. introduced under the skin • He had seen them dozens of times in the doctor’s office, but Larry always felt faint at the thought of a hypodermic needle being plunged into his arm.
dia- : across, through diagonal, diagram, diameter, dialogue • diagnosis • n.the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition • Frustrated for months, Elizabeth finally found a doctor who presented her with a correct diagnosis and treatment for her condition.
dis- : not, undo dismiss, disrespect, disallow, disarray • disingenuous • adj.lacking in frankness, candor, or sincerity; falsely or hypocritically ingenuous; insincere • Many found the mayor’s remarks disingenuous and decided to vote for another candidate.
durus : hard duration, endure • durable • adj. able to resist wear, decay, etc., well; lasting; enduring. • Modern automobile engines are more durable than their predecessors and require less maintenance.
facio-/factum : make or do factory, manufacture • façade • n.the face of a building, especially the main front • The façades of many new buildings lack the character and distinction of those from the last century.
felix/felicis : happy felicity • felicitous • adj.well-suited for the occasion, as an action, manner, or expression; apt; appropriate • Gerald’s choice to wear short pants to the picnic was particularly felicitous, as temperatures soared to record numbers that day.
fide : faith confide, fidelity, confidante • infidel • n. a person who has no religious faith; unbeliever. • According to it’s members, anyone not born into the restrictive faith should be considered an infidel.
fin : end finish, confine, finale, define, finite • definition • n.the act of defining or making definite, distinct, or clear. • The blurry image lacked definition and no one was able to recognize the face in the picture.
folium : leaf foliate, exfoliate, folio • foliage • n.the leaves of a plant, collectively or leaves in general • Many regard the foliage of the eastern United States to be the most beautiful, particularly in the Fall.
gradus : step or degree grade, gradual, graduate, degrade • gradation • n. any process or change taking place through a series of stages, by degrees, or in a gradual manner. • Due to the gradation of our descent, we did not realize the plane was landing until moments before we touched down.
hetero : opposite heterosexual, heterodox, heterozygous • heterogeneous • adj. different in kind; unlike; incongruous. • My eclectic taste in music leads me to choose a radio station with a more heterogeneous playlist.
homo : same homogenize, homonym, homophone • homogeneous • adj.of the same kind or nature; essentially alike. • Louise finds the homogeneous nature of her book club member’s personalities to be comforting.
in-/im- : not inaction, inefficient, ineffectual, imperturbable, impregnable, impossible • impediment • n.obstruction; hindrance; obstacle. • The South African runner did not allow his lack of legs to be an impediment to competing in the Olympic games.
inter : between international, intersection, interpersonal, interlude, intermission • interloper • n. a person who interferes or meddles in the affairs of others • Some regard Aunt Sally as an interloper, but others view her as a matchmaker.
ir- : not irresponsible, irreversible • irrevocable • adj. not to be revoked or recalled; unable to be repealed or annulled;unalterable • Once implemented, the effects of the budget cuts would be irrevocable.
-ize : make fantasize, materialize, verbalize • extemporize • v.to speak extemporaneously;to sing, or play on an instrument, composing the music as one proceeds; improvise. • Without his prepared notes, the speaker was forced to extemporize his speech.
jacio, ject : throw eject, trajectory, interject • projectile • n.a body projected or impelledforward, as through the air. • Soldiers are now able to fire weapons capable of sending a projectile two miles away.
kinesis : movement telekinetic, kinesthetic, kinesiology • kinetic • adj.pertaining to motion; caused by motion • The kindergarten teacher was surprised her students’ kinetic reaction to eating birthday cupcakes.
loqu/locut : to speak or talk Click to edit Master text styles • loquacious • adj.characterized by excessive talk; wordy • Some examples given for vocabulary words are extremely long, even loquacious, giving far more description and example than is practically useful in an activity designed for high school students.
lud-, lus- : play or mock allude, illusion • ludicrous • adj.causing laughter because of absurdity; provoking or deservingderision; ridiculous; laughable • The students thought their principal looked ludicrous in his chicken Halloween costume.
magnus : great or large magnificent, magnification, magnate, magnitude • magnanimous • adj. generous in forgiving an insult or injury; free from petty resentfulness or vindictiveness • Though hurt by her sister, Helen made the magnanimous decision to invite her to Thanksgiving dinner.
mar : ocean marine, marsh • maritime • adj.of or pertaining to the sea • The hurricane disrupted much of the region’s maritime commerce.
-ment : state of; act of statement, document, filament, firmament, amazement, contentment • disillusionment • n.a freeing or a being freed from illusion or conviction; disenchantment. • A wave of disillusionment crashed over the concert-goers as they realized the famous pop-star lip-synced all of her songs.
met/meter : to measure metric, barometer, thermometer, kilometer • metronome • n.a mechanical or electrical instrument that makes repeated clicking sounds at an adjustable pace, used for marking rhythm, especially in practicing music. • The rhythmic ticking of the metronome helped the student play the new musical piece.
micro : small microscope, micron, microorganism • microcosm • n.human beings, humanity, society, or the like, viewed as an epitome or miniature of the world or universe. • The new online game created a virtual world, a microcosm of society, in which players could interact.
mis- : wrong misunderstand, misfire, misanthrope, misinformation • misconstrue • v.to misunderstand the meaning of; take in a wrong sense; misinterpret. • Peter wanted to make a good impression, but she seemed to misconstrue his compliment.
naus : ship, boat nautilus, nautiform • nautical • adj.of or pertaining to sailors, ships, or navigation • One nautical mile is slightly less than one actual mile.
-ous : having quality of, like adventurous, courageous, fractious, gregarious • scrupulous • adj.having scruples; having or showing a strict regard for what one considers right; principled. • The league looks for scrupulous, objective, responsible referees.
petro : stone petrean (of rock), petroglyph • petrified • adj.converted into stone or a stony substance. • The group travelled hundreds of miles to see the famed petrified forest in Arizona.
poly : many polygon, polynomial, polytechnic, polygamy • polyglot • n.a person who speaks, writes, or reads a number of languages.
post : after postpone, postdate, postmortem, posterior • posterity • n.succeeding or future generations collectively • Politicians often talk about the legacy we will leave to posterity.
primus : first prime, primary, primeval, primitive • primordial • adj.pertaining to or existing at or from the very beginning • Paleontologists searched the ancient riverbed for signs of primordial life.