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  1. 10th Grade Root Word and SAT Vocabulary

  2. a-ab- : outside of, not abdicate, abnegation, abridge, abstract absent abnormal abstinence abolish • abstruse • adj. hard to understand; recondite; esoteric: abstruse theories. • No one at the lecture could follow the scientist’s abstruse theories about the origins of the universe.

  3. -age : state of manage, mortgage, patronage, pilgrimage, visage usage sage • presage • n. something that portends or foreshadows an event • v. to foreshadow, predict, or forecast • Successful sales of the latest smart phone may presage a rise in technology stocks.

  4. ac-, ad- : to, toward admit, admonish, accelerate, accessible • adversity • n. a condition marked by misfortune, calamity, or distress; an unfortunate event or circumstance • Many politicians describe their struggle to overcome adversity in an attempt to relate to constituents.

  5. -al-ial : like, pertaining to corporeal, social, filial, economical, editorial, celestial • peripheral • adj.Not relating to the most important part of something; incidental; minor; on or near the periphery • The doctor chose to begin treating the most serious trauma victims first, leaving the peripheral cases to wait.

  6. ambi, amphi : both amphibious, ambiguous, amphitheater, ambidextrous • ambivalent • adj.undecided or simultaneously having opposite or conflicting feelings, such as love and hate • Susan couldn’t help but feel ambivalent about being offered the promotion over her best friend.

  7. -ance-ence : state of distance, entrance, difference, eloquence • pestilence n.a deadly or virulent epidemic disease; something that is considered harmful, destructive, or evil. Advances in water purification, sanitation, and antibiotic medicines have limited the kinds of pestilence faced by previous generations.

  8. -ant : one who servant, assistant • savant • n.a person of profound or extensive learning; learned scholar. • Stephen Hawking is considered by many to be one of the great savants of modern science.

  9. anti- : against anticlimactic, antipathy, antipersonnel • antithesis • n.opposition, contrast; the direct opposite. • The brutal war crimes were the antithesis of the government's peacekeeping policy.

  10. anthropo : man/mankind anthropology, misanthrope, philanthropy • anthropomorphic • adj.ascribing human form or attributes to a being or thing not human, especially to a deity. • The “Dog Whisperer” urges pet owners to resist their anthropomorphic tendencies.

  11. audaus : hear audition, auditor, applause, laud • auditory • adj. - pertaining to hearing, to the sense of hearing, or to the organs of hearing. • The doctor counseled his patient that continuing to listen to extremely loud music could impair auditory function.

  12. cata : lower in position catacomb, catatonic, catalepsy • cataclysm • n.any violent upheaval, especially one of a social or political nature. • Many feel that a volcanic event in Yellowstone National Park will be the nation’s next great cataclysm.

  13. circum : around circumference, circular, circus, circumnavigate • circumspect • adj.watchful and discreet; cautious;  prudent; well-considered • Though the caller seemed sincere about my winning a valuable prize, I remained circumspect.

  14. ciscise : cut incision, precise, incisor • excise • n.an internal tax or duty on certain  commodities, as liquor or tobacco, levied on their  manufacture, sale, or consumption within the country. • v.to impose and excise • The congressman questioned the effect of excising products imported from China on our nation’s economy.

  15. cludclus : shut include, exclude, preclude • occlude • v.to close, shut, or stop up (a passage, opening, etc.). • Storm drains, occluded by debris, could not handle the amount of water generated by the storm.

  16. corcordis : heart concord, discord, courage • cordial • adj. courteous and gracious; friendly; warm; sincere • I could not believe that Sally, my mortal enemy since third grade, was actually cordial on my birthday.

  17. curro : run occur, excursion, courier • concurrent • adj. occurring or existing simultaneously or side by side • Some students find time to finish high school while concurrently enrolling in some college courses.

  18. demo : people democracy, demagogue, epidemic • demographics • n. the statistical data of a population, especially those showing average age, income, education, etc. • The campaign studied the demographics of the state and focused their efforts on key cities and neighborhoods.

  19. derma : skin dermatology, epidermis, taxidermy • hypodermic • adj. introduced under the skin • He had seen them dozens of times in the doctor’s office, but Larry always felt faint at the thought of a hypodermic needle being plunged into his arm.

  20. dia- : across, through diagonal, diagram, diameter, dialogue • diagnosis • n.the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition • Frustrated for months, Elizabeth finally found a doctor who presented her with a correct diagnosis and treatment for her condition.

  21. dis- : not, undo dismiss, disrespect, disallow, disarray • disingenuous • adj.lacking in frankness, candor, or sincerity; falsely or hypocritically ingenuous; insincere • Many found the mayor’s remarks disingenuous and decided to vote for another candidate.

  22. durus : hard duration, endure • durable • adj. able to resist wear, decay, etc., well; lasting; enduring. • Modern automobile engines are more durable than their predecessors and require less maintenance.

  23. facio-/factum : make or do factory, manufacture • façade • n.the face of a building, especially the main front • The façades of many new buildings lack the character and distinction of those from the last century.

  24. felix/felicis : happy felicity • felicitous • adj.well-suited for the occasion, as an action, manner, or expression; apt; appropriate • Gerald’s choice to wear short pants to the picnic was particularly felicitous, as temperatures soared to record numbers that day.

  25. fide : faith confide, fidelity, confidante • infidel • n. a person who has no religious faith; unbeliever. • According to it’s members, anyone not born into the restrictive faith should be considered an infidel.

  26. fin : end finish, confine, finale, define, finite • definition • n.the act of defining or making definite, distinct, or clear. • The blurry image lacked definition and no one was able to recognize the face in the picture.

  27. folium : leaf foliate, exfoliate, folio • foliage • n.the leaves of a plant, collectively or leaves in general • Many regard the foliage of the eastern United States to be the most beautiful, particularly in the Fall.

  28. gradus : step or degree grade, gradual, graduate, degrade • gradation • n. any process or change taking place through a series of stages, by degrees, or in a gradual manner. • Due to the gradation of our descent, we did not realize the plane was landing until moments before we touched down.

  29. hetero : opposite heterosexual, heterodox, heterozygous • heterogeneous • adj. different in kind; unlike; incongruous. • My eclectic taste in music leads me to choose a radio station with a more heterogeneous playlist.

  30. homo : same homogenize, homonym, homophone • homogeneous • adj.of the same kind or nature; essentially alike. • Louise finds the homogeneous nature of her book club member’s personalities to be comforting.

  31. in-/im- : not inaction, inefficient, ineffectual, imperturbable, impregnable, impossible • impediment • n.obstruction; hindrance; obstacle. • The South African runner did not allow his lack of legs to be an impediment to competing in the Olympic games.

  32. inter : between international, intersection, interpersonal, interlude, intermission • interloper • n. a person who interferes or meddles in the affairs of others • Some regard Aunt Sally as an interloper, but others view her as a matchmaker.

  33. ir- : not irresponsible, irreversible • irrevocable • adj. not to be revoked or recalled; unable to be repealed or annulled;unalterable • Once implemented, the effects of the budget cuts would be irrevocable.

  34. -ize : make fantasize, materialize, verbalize • extemporize • v.to speak extemporaneously;to sing, or play on an instrument, composing the music as one proceeds; improvise. • Without his prepared notes, the speaker was forced to extemporize his speech.

  35. jacio, ject : throw eject, trajectory, interject • projectile • n.a body projected or impelledforward, as through the air. • Soldiers are now able to fire weapons capable of sending a projectile two miles away.

  36. kinesis : movement telekinetic, kinesthetic, kinesiology • kinetic • adj.pertaining to motion; caused by motion • The kindergarten teacher was surprised her students’ kinetic reaction to eating birthday cupcakes.

  37. loqu/locut : to speak or talk Click to edit Master text styles • loquacious • adj.characterized by excessive talk; wordy • Some examples given for vocabulary words are extremely long, even loquacious, giving far more description and example than is practically useful in an activity designed for high school students.

  38. lud-, lus- : play or mock allude, illusion • ludicrous • adj.causing laughter because of absurdity; provoking or deservingderision; ridiculous; laughable • The students thought their principal looked ludicrous in his chicken Halloween costume.

  39. magnus : great or large magnificent, magnification, magnate, magnitude • magnanimous • adj. generous in forgiving an insult or injury; free from petty resentfulness or vindictiveness • Though hurt by her sister, Helen made the magnanimous decision to invite her to Thanksgiving dinner.

  40. mar : ocean marine, marsh • maritime • adj.of or pertaining to the sea • The hurricane disrupted much of the region’s maritime commerce.

  41. -ment : state of; act of statement, document, filament, firmament, amazement, contentment • disillusionment • n.a freeing or a being freed from illusion or conviction; disenchantment. • A wave of disillusionment crashed over the concert-goers as they realized the famous pop-star lip-synced all of her songs.

  42. met/meter : to measure metric, barometer, thermometer, kilometer • metronome • n.a mechanical or electrical instrument that makes repeated clicking sounds at an adjustable pace, used for marking rhythm, especially in practicing music. • The rhythmic ticking of the metronome helped the student play the new musical piece.

  43. micro : small microscope, micron, microorganism • microcosm • n.human beings, humanity, society, or the like, viewed as an epitome or miniature of the world or universe. • The new online game created a virtual world, a microcosm of society, in which players could interact.

  44. mis- : wrong misunderstand, misfire, misanthrope, misinformation • misconstrue • v.to misunderstand the meaning of; take in a wrong sense; misinterpret. • Peter wanted to make a good impression, but she seemed to misconstrue his compliment.

  45. naus : ship, boat nautilus, nautiform • nautical • adj.of or pertaining to sailors, ships, or navigation • One nautical mile is slightly less than one actual mile.

  46. -ous : having quality of, like adventurous, courageous, fractious, gregarious • scrupulous • adj.having scruples; having or showing a strict regard for what one considers right; principled. • The league looks for scrupulous, objective, responsible referees.

  47. petro : stone petrean (of rock), petroglyph • petrified • adj.converted into stone or a stony substance. • The group travelled hundreds of miles to see the famed petrified forest in Arizona.

  48. poly : many polygon, polynomial, polytechnic, polygamy • polyglot • n.a person who speaks, writes, or reads a number of languages.

  49. post : after postpone, postdate, postmortem, posterior • posterity • n.succeeding or future generations collectively • Politicians often talk about the legacy we will leave to posterity.

  50. primus : first prime, primary, primeval, primitive • primordial • adj.pertaining to or existing at or from the very beginning • Paleontologists searched the ancient riverbed for signs of primordial life.