Robert Bruce was named Guardian of Scotland in1298 after Wallace’s defeat • However, this was only to last a 12 month period in which he had a disagreement with John Comyn over the re-establishing of King John • Bruce would meet with Comyn again!
Robert Bruce • After his disagreement with Comyn in the late 1290s, Bruce continued to fight against the English invasion. • Comyn and Wallace also continued their battle against Edward’s armies. • In 1302 Bruce decided to accept Edward’s guarantees on his families lands and ended his battle. • Wallace and the Comyn’s would continue to their feud.
Ordinance of the Order • The “Ordinance of the Order” was published in 1305 • This provided Scots with the chance of becoming Sheriffs and gave land back to old Nobles who had lost land during battles • Comyn’s men were to be given the privilege of becoming Sheriffs • John Comyn had now become more popular in Edward’s eyes than Bruce • Bruce planned revenge!
Grey Friars Church • Aware of his diminishing chances of restoring King John to office or he himself becoming King • Bruce decided to meet Comyn on 10th February 1306 at Grey Friars Church in Dumfries • After a brief exchange within the Church in which Comyn refused to support Bruce, both men began to argue, then fight. • Bruce, it is believed, then murdered John Comyn in “cold blood” • For this dreadful, heinous act he was excommunicated
Bruce becomes King of Scots • On the 25th March 1306 in Scone, Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scots by the Countess of Buchan • He could now plan his rebellion!
Bruce’s defeats • King Robert’s rebellious campaign did not materialise at the beginning • He suffered defeats at Methvin Woods where practically all his army were defeated • The renainder would be defeated at Dalry as Bruce fled to safety • King Edward once again showed his anger at those who questioned his powerful army
He publically executed Bruce’s brother and other supporters • Bruce’s wife was confined to a manor and his sister sent to a nunnery • Countess Buchan, who made Bruce King, was along with Bruce’s sister, placed in steel cages in Berwick and Roxburgh • His daughter, Mary, was placed in a cage in the Tower of London • Bruce??? He was in hiding!!!
King Hob • Due to the fact King Robert had been defeated and went into hiding for a short time, he was given the title of King Hob or King Nobody. • It is whilst in hiding the fabricated story of Bruce and the spiders web was invented • This story was never confirmed as no one knew exactly where he had hidden out.
King Hob returns • In 1907 Bruce returned to fight Edward’s men • He had successes at Turnberry Castle and Glen Trool where he defeated Valance the English leader • He also defeated the English at Loudoun Hill
The death of King Edward I • Having defeated the English, Bruce was well aware that King Edward was in search of him • It was on one of his voyages north that King Edward I passed away • July 7th 1307 • On his death he asked his son Edward II, to continue the search for Bruce
Bruce vs Comyn • It had became clear Bruce and his men would need to take the land of the Comyn’s to gain total control • Bruce gathered his men and marched into Moray, defeating everything in front of him • The Comyn castles fell to Bruce • This battle ensued at Inverurie.
Battle of Inverurie • Bruce had fallen ill and rumour spread his army could be defeated • Bruce however, led his men to an astonishing battle in the North East • He then destroyed the Comyn lands, cattle and castles • Bruce deliberately destroyed castles • Knowing he could not hold them it stopped them being used against him
Stirling Castle • Now only 2 castles in Scotland remained under English control, Berwick and Stirling • Stirling, the most strategic of these was willing to surrender to Bruce if not relieved by an English garrison by midsummer’s day 1314 • This was a direct challenge to Edward II • He sent his men towards Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn 1314 • On the 23rd and 24th of June 1314 Bruce found his men heavily outnumbered as he appeared on the battlefield to face Edward’s experienced men • Day one of the battle was a few skirmishes in which English Knights were kiled • This made King Edward think again about his positioning of his army • He decided to move them towards Bruce’s position
Day 2 witnessed Bruce’s men taking up position across the Carse, kneeling in prayer and preparing to fight • As the battle began, the Scots, in a formation of schiltrons, attacked the English, driving them backwards • The horsemen, attacked the archers, preventing them from being effective • The Scottish reserves then rushed in from Coxet Hill forcing the English to scatter • It was a famous victory for Bruce and his men
Bruce continued his onslaught of the English from 1315 until 1318 • Taking back Berwick and destroying the North of Edward’s country • Bruce on many occasions outwitted Edward’s army and kept his reputation as a great Scottish warrior.
The Declaration of Arbroath 1320 • After his murder of Comyn in 1306 Bruce still remained excommunicated (unable to officially be Scotland’s King) • To overcome this the Scottish Nobles had to appeal to the Pope, John XXII, to acknowledge Bruce as Scotland’s rightful leader as well as recognise Scotland as independent from England • If the Pope refused Scotland and Bruce would remain under English rule • The Declaration of Arbroath had no effect on the Pope. • It would not be until 1323 that Rome would look favourably on this Declaration and on Bruce’s excommunication
The Treaty of Edinburgh 1328 • In 1327 King Edward II was deposed and murdered • Bruce saw this as a way of making peace with England and being recognised as King • The new King was Edward III, he was too you to rule • His mother, Isabella would rule for him • Bruce, on his death bed, ordered ferocious attacks on the North of England • He wanted a peace treaty before he died
The Treaty of Edinburgh 1328 • The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in 1328 • This was the peace treaty Bruce wished for • It stated – Bruce be recognised as King of Scots • Balliol be denounced • Edward IIIs sister was to marry Bruce’s son David • All Scottish records be returned to Scotland • The Scots were to pay the English £20,000 • The Scots had fought for their freedom and WON
Robert Bruce • After reading the section on Robert Bruce you should now answer the following questions as fully as possible • Again, this will allow you enough knowledge to prepare a 10 mark exam question.
Why did Bruce want to meet with Comyn? • What was the outcome and how would this affect Bruce in future years? • Bruce required the support of the Nobles. Did he have this? If not detail why not. • Bruce was crowned King of Scots in 1306, why was this irrelevant? • Explain what King Edward did to make Bruce and his followers suffer for his coronation?
Bruce changed sides in 1297, detail why? • Explain in detail the events leading up to Bruce becoming known as “King Hob” • Some historians argue the death of King Edward I was very significant in Bruce achieving his goals. How far do you agree with this? Explain your answer. • Historians argue also that Bannockburn, although an important victory, had little to do with Bruce’s ultimate victory in the wars! How far do you agree? • What do you think more important in achieving independence, Bruce’s military or diplomatic actions? Explain your answer.
Were English weaknesses more important than Bruce’s achievements? • Do you believe that by agreeing the Treaty of Edinburgh, Bruce had finally achieved everything he set out to do in 1306? Give reasons for your answer.