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GARGAMELLE. Leptonic neutral current. The beginning of the experimental studies of the electroweak theory. Now, we are talking about experimental studies to understand the processes of the EW symmetry breaking. 4 th ECFA/DESY workshop Summary of the Calorimeter studies.

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slide1

GARGAMELLE

Leptonic neutral current

The beginningof the experimental studies

of the electroweak theory

Now, we are talking about experimental studies

to understand the processes of the EW symmetry breaking

slide2

4th ECFA/DESY workshop

Summary of theCalorimeter studies

What was our view at the beginning of the 4th ECFA workshop

What is the paradigm today

What has been achieved in the R&D

What remains to do

in the short-mid term

in the longer studies

What could be the future goalfor the 5th ECFA studies

Jean-Claude BRIENT

LLR-IN2P3

slide3

The main principles

(can be seen as obvious today, but …)

Start from the PHYSIC program

change with time (i.e. recent interest for the capability to measure the tau polarization)

Identify the need and how to fulfil it

Make a list of requirements, like ∆Ejet, ∆Mdi-jet, photon IP, etc…

Look for pseudo-realistic device

What is pseudo-realistic/not realistic is relatively elastic

Establish the distance between pseudo-realistic to realistic device

Prototype and test beam are clearly the best way to do it

slide4

Our view at the beginning of the 4th ECFA

ECAL

  • SHASHLIK
  • TILE for US-LCD-LDand ACFA
  • W-Si for TDR and US-LCD-SD

Energy resolution single particle

(10%/E was a “good’’ argument)

Pion/electron separation

Importance of performance

in multi-jet events (not quantified)

HCAL

  • TILE for TDR, US-LD, ACFA
  • optimal size of tile
  • photodetectors
  • S/N at mip
  • Digital for TDR
  • is it real effect ?
  • shower size ?
  • energy resolution ?

Energy resolution single particle

(40%/E was a “good’’ argument)

Importance of performance

in multi-jet events (not quantified)

the graal is the jet business
The Graal is the jet business

Di-jet mass resolution, lepton tagging in jet environment,etc…

  • Shower to shower separability
  • separation charged hadrons/photon and charged hadrons/neutral hadrons
  • Give access to the best possible Ejet and
  • di-jet mass resolution
  • Lepton identification in jet
  • electron, mu and tau tagging in jet
  • Identification of jet flavor, W vs Z, etc…
  • Needed to see a signal at 5
  • Higgs self-coupling and ?? ttH ,…??

Dependence on the measurement precision

  • Higgs BR in WW
  • WL coupling (W+W–versus ZZ)

e+e– W+W–,ZZ à s=800 GeV

=0.3

=0.6

Admitted by the community,

we want to be as close as

possible from

a ”bubble chamber” picture

for each event

Masse j3j4 GeV

Divergence on the realization …

Masse j1j2 GeV

slide6

Totally segmented with fine granularity

best choice would be silicon-tungsten,

CALICEcollaboration

US-SD detector

ECAL

Tungsten-silicon sampling calorimeter (20 to 40 layers)

Corresponding to about 1000to3000 m2 of silicon detector

The pad size would be from 0.5 to 1 cm2

(in the region of the Molière radius )

Overall it means about 30 Million channels !!!!

NEW order of magnitude

for calorimeter

slide7

For a W-Si calorimeter

¨Number of masks (x 0.5 )

¨Industrial Yield (x 2 )

¨Use of 8'' wafers ?

The goal is << 2 $/cm2

Silicon mini-workshop –

EWHA Univ.- Seoul August 2002

▶About1.5 $/cm2followingKorean estimation

▶ About1.0 $/cm2followingRussian estimation

Silicon detector for HEP - Cost evolution

Moore's Law for Silicon Strip Detectors

ECAL

4”

Wafer size

6”

Compilation from H.Sadrozinski (UCSC)

ATLAS

cost/area ($/cm²)

10

Used in the TDR

CMS

2

2$/cm2

Blank wafer price 6''

1

YEAR

slide8

HCAL

ECAL

TPC

MODULE

tungsten

Detector slab

slide9

Prototype overview

Global view

of the test beam setup

VME/…

ECAL general view

HCAL

2nd structure

(2×1.4mm of W plates)

3rd structure

(3×1.4mm of W plates)

180 mm

BEAM

VFE

ECAL

Beam

monitoring

Movable table

370 mm

1st structure

(1.4mm of W plates)

370 mm

Detector slab

Silicon wafer

slide10

ECAL W-Si. prototype in test beam in 2004 ? 2005 , Where ??

Pad

PCB

VFE chip

Wafer

Transverseview

Silicon wafer

(0.525 mm)

PCB (multi-layers)

( 2.4 mm)

Al. Shielding

8.5 mm

Tungsten

(1.4 mm, 2×1.4 or 3×1.4 mm)

Composite structure(0.15 mm / layer)

slide11

Totally segmented with fine granularity

best choice would be silicon-tungsten,

CALICEcollaboration

US-SD detector

Reality of the cost evolution ?

However, remember that it is possible to go down

by factor 2 on the Si. Area

Is it enough ??

If not enough on the cost reduction

Partially segmented with fine granularity

Italian choice ,LCCAL

3 silicon layers + scintillator tiles

ACFA choice,

3 fiber devices + scintillator tiles

ECAL

slide12

PM’s

LCCAL prototype

Tiles surrounded by

holder structure for PM

Fibers inside collector

In front of PMs

Tiles

Si planes

LCCAL under test @ BTF in Frascati

si pads inserted in proto 28 3 03
6 sensors/motherboard with serial readout.

Status of production:

16 sensors available

2 motherboards fully and 1 partially equipped (252 pads/board)

6 cm

~1 cm

~1 cm

7 cm

Lccal: Si Pads design &

production OK Mar 03

Si Pads inserted in proto 28-3-03

Sensors from IET (Warsaw)

slide14

Calibration applied

1 e-

2 e-

11.5%E

3 e-

Ebeam (MeV)

Lccal: energy resolution and linearity for Tiles

From BTF test

EE

Good linearity vs particle multiplicity

  • Photoelectron stat. Negligible
  • Sampling term 11.5% as in MC
  • Uniformity of light collection still at a level < 10% using all layers. Effect on resolution to be evaluated at next Cern TB (Aug 2003)

From Cern TB

Nphe>5.1 /layer →Cal(45 layers) ~

250 MeV/Mip ~ 800Npe/GeV

Light uniformity better than 20%

OK also @ BTF (E ~500 MeV)

acfa ecal kek kobe konan niigata shinshu and tsukuba
ACFA ECALKEK, Kobe, Konan, Niigata, Shinshu and Tsukuba

EMCAL design

1) Tile of 4cm x 4cm (7.1Xo)

2) Strip Arrays (x,y) of1cm-width

Sub-system R&D

a) SHmax:direct-attached APD

and WLS-readout.

b) Super-multi-channel photo

-detectors.

Present status and future plans

1st exp. just finished on Nov.14

for 1(partial), 2, and a.

2nd expin November 2003

with 1(full) andb.

ECAL

Tile/Fiber Sampling Calorimeter

  • Hardware Compensation
  • Design Flexibility
  • Reasonable cost
  • Well-established thechnology
  • Sufficient granularity for EMCAL ?

Note the date

Scintillatortile of 4 x 4 cm

slide16

Totally segmented with fine granularity

best choice would be gas detector + radiator

CALICEcollaboration

Famous Digital HCAL

Energy resolution

(due to trunc. Landau)

Shower width

(due to density)

A.Sokolov (IHEP)

S.Magill (ANL)

Digital  Analog

Slope = 23 hits/GeV

HCAL

slide17

Resistive Plate: Glass or Bakelite

Pick-up pad(s)

Mylar

RPC’s design in

US groups

HV

Gas

Graphite

Results

from Russian groups

slide18

The key point of the costing is the readout electronics

The number of channels is VERY LARGE

i.e. just for the prototype, it is about 200 000 to 400 000 channels

Readout Board proposed

by LLR (TDR 01)

Readout Board proposed

By JINR-DUBNA

slide19

IV. Design work on the electronic readout

System overview

I RPC ASIC

located on the chambers

II Data concentrators

funnels data from several

FE chips

III VME data collector

funnels data from several

data concentrators

IV External timing and trigger system

slide20

Reality of the simulation

Energy Resolution as well as shower width

Are better in GEANT4

Is it true in real world ??

If real data largely downgraded

Partially segmented with medium granularity

CALICEcollaboration

9 layers of projective scintillator tiles

(from 5x5cm to 20x20cm)

ACFA choice,

4x4 cm projective scintillator tiles

Totally segmented with fine granularity

best choice would be gas detector + radiator

CALICEcollaboration

Famous Digital HCAL

HCAL

details of tfs optimisation studies
Details of TFS Optimisation Studies

Centre/straight WLS-fibre

Diagonal/bent WLS-fibre

No stress on fibre,

fibre refl.

=tile reflector

more stress on fibre,

fibre refl.

=tile reflector

L=7.85cm

L=7,85cm

L=5cm

clear RO fibre to couple:

1-3.5m in detector,

light attenuation <18%

  • Double looped fibre
  • strong fibre bend,
  • most stress on fibre,
  • probably ageing damages,
  • fibre end fibre reflector
  • inside tile >>>
  • special reflective coating
  • needed ?
  • 1.1 mmhole in center
  • drilled and polished?
  • could it be made during tile moulding?

L=31,4cm

the ac tual achieved ly for the tfs

Treatment direction

The actual achieved LY for the TFS

Scintillator BC-408,

, Kuraray, WLS-fibre

3M-Super Radiant Reflector

Light yield/tile

  • 22+/-1.5 pe (BC-408, Aug. 2002)
  • >> 26 (new results from ITEP)
  • both Russian scintillators
  • have ~ 2/3 of BC-408 LY
  • ~20% more LY can be expected
  • by improving polishing
  • of WLF-fibre end,
  • no gluing needed anymore

All together:

100% reflectivity at fibre end

slide23

ACHIEVED by the calorimeter studies

in the 4th ECFA workshop

test of the W-Si ECAL (CALICE)

France, U.Kingdom, MSU, Prague,….

test/validation of the technical problem of integration (30 layers in 18cm)

mechanical assembly , mechanical tolerance,…

VFE seems in good shape, use of amorphous silicon for AC coupling, …

test of the W-Si + tiles(LCCAL)

Como, LNF,Padova,Trieste

test of the technical feasibility…

mechanical assembly , mechanical tolerance,… First results in beam

test of the digital HCAL (CALICE)

ANL, IHEP, JINR, NIU, SNU , UTA, …

Energy measurement wit digital device (GEANT4) test with pad size, …

can we do it with RPC (GEM), Geiger Chamber,….

RPC’s design, Simulation studies (energy resolution, shower width),

test of the tile HCAL (CALICE)

DESY,ITEP,JINR,LPI,MEPhI,Prague…, KEK,… NIU

homogeneity of response

how to do the tile ? fiber shape, choice of the fiber

What is the smallest size with a good S/N at MIP ?

5x5cm (CALICE AHCAL) , 4x4cm(ACFA) , 9cm2(CALICE NIU)

Where to do the readout ? - close (Si-pm) - far (APD multi-anode)

slide24

AND NOW

The road for the 5th ECFA , (2 next years) is relatively clear

  • Prototype in construction / test
  • validation of technical aspect well advanced and will continue
  • Prototype in test beam (2004 – 2006)
  • physics results (specially the hadronic shower pattern in GEANT4)
  • Diversity of approach interesting at this level

LEVEL of SEGMENTATION for ECAL

for HCAL

TECHNICAL WAY to do it for ECAL

for HCAL