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# Friction

Download Presentation ## Friction

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1. Friction

2. Weight • Weight is the magnitude of the force of gravity acting on an object. • Weight = Fg • Fg = mass x gravity

3. Normal Force • Normal Force is a force exerted by one object on another in a direction perpendicular to the surface of contact.

4. The normal force is always perpendicular to the surface but is not always opposite the force of gravity.

5. On an angle, the normal force is calculated using Fn = mgcosθ. The θ is the angle of the ramp.

6. Friction • Friction opposes the applied force. • Two types of friction: Static and Kinetic

7. Static Friction • The resistive force that keeps objects from moving is called the force of static friction. • Static Friction = Fs • As long as the object doesn’t move, the static friction is always equal to the opposite in direction to the applied force. • Fs = -Fapplied • When the applied force is as great as it can be without moving the object, the force of static friction reaches its maximum value, called Fsmax

8. Kinetic Friction • Once an object exceeds Fsmax, it begins to move. • The resistive force that opposes the relative motion of two contacting surfaces that are moving is called the force of kinetic friction (Fk)

9. The force of friction is proportional to the normal force. • It is easier to push a chair across the floor at a constant speed than to push a heavy desk across the floor at the same speed. • Because the desk is heavier than the chair, the desk experiences a greater normal force and therefore greater friction.

10. Coefficients of Friction • Friction depends on the surfaces in contact. • The quantity that expresses the dependence on frictional forces on the particular surfaces in contact is called the coefficient of friction. • Coefficient of friction is represented by the symbol μ and pronounces mu.

11. Coefficient of kinetic friction • μk = Fk/Fn • Divide the Force of kinetic friction by the normal force

12. Coefficient of static friction • μs = Fsmax / Fn • Divide the maximum value of static friction by the normal force

13. If the value of μ is known and the normal force is known, then the magnitude of the force of friction can be calculated. • Ff = μFn

14. The kinetic friction is always less than or equal to the maximum static friction. • Think about pushing a car that is sitting still or pushing a car that is already moving. • The coefficient of kinetic friction is always less than or equal to the coefficient of static friction.

15. Materials μsμk

16. Sample Problem 4C • A 24 Kg crate initially at rest on a horizontal floor requires a 75 N horizontal force to set it into motion. Find the coefficient of static friction.

17. Sample Problem 4C • Knowns? • m = 24 kg, Fsmax = 75 N • Unknown? • Coefficient of static friction = ? • Equations? • μs = Fsmax / Fn and Fn = mg • Answer • Fn = 24(9.8) = 235.2 N; μs = 75/235.2 = .32

18. Practice 4D • A student moves a box down the hall with a rope by pulling with a force of 185 N at an angle of 25 degrees to the horizontal. The box has a mass of 35 kg and a coefficient of kinetic friction of .27. What is the acceleration? • Answer? • 2.7 m/s2 in the positive x direction

19. Q1 • A 25 kg chair initially at rest on a horizontal floor requires a 165 N horizontal force to set in motion. Once the chair is in motion, a 127 N horizontal force keeps it moving at a constant velocity. • a. Find the coefficient of static friction between the chair and the floor. • b. Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the chair and the floor.

20. Q2 • A 5 kg hockey puck is set into motion and requires a 34 N horizontal force to set it into motion. After the puck is in motion, a horizontal force of 28 N keeps it moving with a constant velocity. Find Us and Uk between the puck and the floor.

21. Q3 • A clerk moves a box of cans down an aisle by pulling on a strap attached to the box. The clerk pulls with a force of 87 N directly horizontal. The box has a mass of 78 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is .45. Find the acceleration of the box.

22. Q4 • A clerk moves a box of cans down an aisle by pulling on a strap attached to the box. The clerk pulls with a force of 40 N directly horizontal. The box has a mass of 8 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is .75. Find the acceleration of the box.