The Jefferson/Jackson Era. 1800-1840. V. War of 1812-"Mr. Madison's War". A. Causes 1. Freedom of the Seas & Impressment-Britain and France were at war. American trading ships and sailors were caught in the middle.
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1. Freedom of the Seas & Impressment-Britain and France were at war. American trading ships and sailors were caught in the middle.
2. Embargo Act, 1807-Jefferson cut off trade with both sides. Very unpopular.
B. James Madison becomes President-1808
-Trouble with the Indians- Tecumsah organized Indians to defend their lands. This, along with the ongoing trading problems led to a large group of war supporters called War Hawks.
-Madison declares war on the British.
C. Actions-Americans invaded Canada, the British attacked and burned Washington, D.C.
Andrew Jackson became a war hero at the Battle of New Orleans and defeated large numbers of Indians in the South, leading to expansion.
D. Results-Treaty of Ghent-simple cease fire.
Side result:-Adams-Onis Treaty-1819-
Spain gives Florida to the U.S.
*After the War of 1812, Americans finally became more nationalist.
A. Postwar changes:
1. The American System-All parts of the nation working together. Henry Clay proposes this:
Protective tariffs, transportation improvements, and National Bank.
2. Supreme Court decisions give court more power.
B. Monroe Doctrine-1823
James Monroe established 2 foreign policy ideals in this speech:
1. Non-intervention-U.S. would not interfere in European affairs if European powers did not interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
2. Non-colonization-Western Hemisphere was closed to any further colonization from European nations.
-Federalists had died out
because of their lack of
support for the War of 1812.
They seemed disloyal.
-No political candidates wanted to be associated with the name Federalist.
A. **Election of 1824**
Candidates: John Quincy Adams
Results: Jackson won more electoral votes but no one won a majority. Clay gave his support to Adams, causing him to win. Clay then became his Secretary of State.
Jackson called this a "corrupt bargain"
and vowed revenge.
-Adams presidency was unpopular because he tried to expand the government's powers.
A. Election of 1828
-Jackson wins easily after forming
the new Democratic Party.
- Jackson identified with the poor, western farmers, and frontiersmen.
-Jackson fired people in the government that opposed him & replaced them with supporters.
-He used his new power to veto and get revenge on his enemies.
B. Indian Removal Act of 1830
-Jackson passed this law moving all Indians west of the Mississippi River.
-Many Indians resisted and were removed by force.
-"Trail of Tears"-Cherokee moved from Georgia to Oklahoma, losing 25% of their population
C. Nullification & the National Bank-"The Monster"-
Jackson believed in the supremacy of the federal government
1. South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union over unfair tariffs that favored northern
merchants but hurt southern planters
2. Jackson threatened South Carolina with force.
3. Jackson disliked the national bank because it represented eastern wealth and aristocracy.
He said it made"the rich richer & the poor poorer."
4. After the 1832 election, Jackson
let the Bank's charter expire and
the deposits were transferred to
5. Results of the Bank War:
-New York became the financial
center for the country.
-Whig Party was formed to oppose "King Andrew"
A. Martin Van Buren-1836
After his election, depression set in.
The Panic of 1837 was a result of
Jackson's economic policies.
This probably cost him re-election
B. Election of 1840
-Whigs nominated ex-General
William Henry Harrison (Pres) and John Tyler(VP)
-Harrison won but died one month after taking office.
C. John Tyler-
He vetoed many Whig attempts at legislation, including a new National Bank. This caused division in the party.
*The Jefferson/Jackson era resulted in a more politically active and aware population. Political parties became essential to the political system.*