Management and Organization Behavior MGMT 3140 Leadership
Leadership • Basic leadership theories • Situational leadership considerations • Attribution in leadership • Transactional and Transformational leadership
Opening Case Berkshire Hathaway • “Keep a group of people enthused about what they do when they have no financial need whatsoever to do it.” – Warren Buffett
Why Do We Study Leadership? • Born into people? • Something that can be learned?
Leadership • Strategic substance • Interpersonal skills • Produce results • Competitive advantage • Seize opportunities • Concerned with detail…
What Do We Want from Leaders? • Old stories • Monaco • Military
Leadership at GE • “Dare” to differentiate • Constantly raise the bar • Don’t be friends with the boss…(HR) • Be candid in private • Become easy to replace • Be inclusive • Free up others to do their job • Keep it simple
Management / Leadership • Transactional • Transformational • Followers … (effective)
Leaders • Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals • Formal • Informal • Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help
Leadership Power • Legitimate • Reward • Coercive • Referent • Expert
Individual Considerations • Type A personalities • Type B personalities • Theory X, Y • Autocratic, democratic
Early Approaches to Leadership • Leader Trait Approach • Behavior Approach
Early Approaches to Leadership • The trait approach seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess. • The behavior approach focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in.
Drive Motivation Integrity and honesty Self-confidence Task-relevant knowledge Intelligence/cognitive ability Dominance (pro-social power motivation ) Emotional maturity The Leader Trait Approach(also known as the great person approach)
The Leader Behavior Approach Initiating Structure (Task) Consideration (Group Maintenance)
The Leader Behavior Approach • Task/Mission • People • See lists page 444
Participation Styles • Autocratic • Democratic • Laissez-faire
Trait and Behavior Approach Misses • Trait = what leaders are like • Behavior = what leaders do • Both ignore the situation
Vroom and Yetton Model Autocratic Consultative Group Delegated
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership • Leadership effectiveness determined by • The characteristic of individuals • The situations in which they find themselves • Distinct leader styles • Relationship-oriented • Task-oriented
Relationship-oriented Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates Getting job done is second priority Task-oriented Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks Getting job done is first priority Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership
Measuring Leader Style • Least preferred co-employee scale • High LPC leaders = relationship-oriented • Low LPC leaders = task-oriented
Situational Characteristics • Leader-Member Relations • Task Structure • Position Power
Advice to Managers • Do not expect leaders to change their leader style from task-oriented to relationship-oriented or vice versa. • Assign task-oriented leaders to very unfavorable or to very favorable situations. Assign relationship-oriented leaders to moderately favorable situations. • If you or one of your subordinates is a relationship-oriented leader in a very unfavorable situation, try to increase the favorability of the situation by improving leader-member relations, increasing task structure by clarifying goals or ways to achieve goals, or raising levels of position power.
Situational Leadership • Hersey and Blanchard
Leader-Member Exchange Theory • A theory that describes the different kinds of relationships that may develop between a leader and a follower. • Leader-follower Dyad-. • In-group- • Out-group-
Path-Goal Theory A theory which describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors leaders can engage in to motivate followers.
Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory • Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace • Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes • Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level
Path-Goal Theory: Types of Behaviors • Directive behavior • Supportive behavior • Participative behavior • Achievement-oriented behavior
Key to Followers (and leaders) • Locus of Control
Substitutes and Neutralizers • Leadership Substitute: Something that acts in place of a formal leader and makes leadership unnecessary (functional). • Intrinsic motivation of subordinates • Skill level of subordinates and nature of work • Leadership Neutralizer: Something that prevents a leader from having any influence and negates a leader’s efforts (dysfunctional). • Lack of ability to reward/punish • Physical distance between leader and workers
Leadership Attribution • Leadership prototypes • Traits & behaviors • Depends on job situation • Depends on local culture • Praise and blame • Why do leaders get fired?
New Topics in Leadership Research • Transformational and Charismatic Leadership • Transactional Leadership
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leader Charisma Developmental Consideration Intellectual Stimulation
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership • Image building • Image communication • Arousing followers • High need for power • Strong in self-efficacy • Moral rightness
Level 5 Leadership • Strong will (determination) • Personal humility • Vs. Pseudotransformational leaders • Careerists • Pass on the praise and accept the blame
Other Leadership Thoughts • Bridge Leadership • Lateral leadership • Courage • Start yourself • Mentor • Learning
Other Leadership Considerations • Are people born as leaders or can they be trained? • Darkside