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Management and Organization Behavior

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  1. Management and Organization Behavior MGMT 3140 Leadership

  2. Leadership • Basic leadership theories • Situational leadership considerations • Attribution in leadership • Transactional and Transformational leadership

  3. Opening Case Berkshire Hathaway • “Keep a group of people enthused about what they do when they have no financial need whatsoever to do it.” – Warren Buffett

  4. Why Do We Study Leadership? • Born into people? • Something that can be learned?

  5. Leadership Training

  6. Leadership • Strategic substance • Interpersonal skills • Produce results • Competitive advantage • Seize opportunities • Concerned with detail…

  7. What Do We Want from Leaders? • Old stories • Monaco • Military

  8. Leadership at GE • “Dare” to differentiate • Constantly raise the bar • Don’t be friends with the boss…(HR) • Be candid in private • Become easy to replace • Be inclusive • Free up others to do their job • Keep it simple

  9. Management / Leadership • Transactional • Transformational • Followers … (effective)

  10. Leaders • Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals • Formal • Informal • Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help

  11. Leadership Power • Legitimate • Reward • Coercive • Referent • Expert

  12. Individual Considerations • Type A personalities • Type B personalities • Theory X, Y • Autocratic, democratic

  13. Early Approaches to Leadership • Leader Trait Approach • Behavior Approach

  14. Early Approaches to Leadership • The trait approach seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess. • The behavior approach focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in.

  15. Drive Motivation Integrity and honesty Self-confidence Task-relevant knowledge Intelligence/cognitive ability Dominance (pro-social power motivation ) Emotional maturity The Leader Trait Approach(also known as the great person approach)

  16. The Leader Behavior Approach Initiating Structure (Task) Consideration (Group Maintenance)

  17. The Leader Behavior Approach • Task/Mission • People • See lists page 444

  18. Participation Styles • Autocratic • Democratic • Laissez-faire

  19. The Leadership or Management Grid

  20. Trait and Behavior Approach Misses • Trait = what leaders are like • Behavior = what leaders do • Both ignore the situation

  21. Vroom and Yetton Model Autocratic Consultative Group Delegated

  22. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership • Leadership effectiveness determined by • The characteristic of individuals • The situations in which they find themselves • Distinct leader styles • Relationship-oriented • Task-oriented

  23. Relationship-oriented Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates Getting job done is second priority Task-oriented Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks Getting job done is first priority Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership

  24. Measuring Leader Style • Least preferred co-employee scale • High LPC leaders = relationship-oriented • Low LPC leaders = task-oriented

  25. Situational Characteristics • Leader-Member Relations • Task Structure • Position Power

  26. Situational Characteristics

  27. Advice to Managers • Do not expect leaders to change their leader style from task-oriented to relationship-oriented or vice versa. • Assign task-oriented leaders to very unfavorable or to very favorable situations. Assign relationship-oriented leaders to moderately favorable situations. • If you or one of your subordinates is a relationship-oriented leader in a very unfavorable situation, try to increase the favorability of the situation by improving leader-member relations, increasing task structure by clarifying goals or ways to achieve goals, or raising levels of position power.

  28. Situational Leadership • Hersey and Blanchard

  29. Leader-Member Exchange Theory • A theory that describes the different kinds of relationships that may develop between a leader and a follower. • Leader-follower Dyad-. • In-group- • Out-group-

  30. Path-Goal Theory A theory which describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors leaders can engage in to motivate followers.

  31. Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory • Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace • Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes • Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level

  32. Path-Goal Theory: Types of Behaviors • Directive behavior • Supportive behavior • Participative behavior • Achievement-oriented behavior

  33. Key to Followers (and leaders) • Locus of Control

  34. Substitutes and Neutralizers • Leadership Substitute: Something that acts in place of a formal leader and makes leadership unnecessary (functional). • Intrinsic motivation of subordinates • Skill level of subordinates and nature of work • Leadership Neutralizer: Something that prevents a leader from having any influence and negates a leader’s efforts (dysfunctional). • Lack of ability to reward/punish • Physical distance between leader and workers

  35. Leadership Attribution • Leadership prototypes • Traits & behaviors • Depends on job situation • Depends on local culture • Praise and blame • Why do leaders get fired?

  36. New Topics in Leadership Research • Transformational and Charismatic Leadership • Transactional Leadership

  37. Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leader Charisma Developmental Consideration Intellectual Stimulation

  38. Characteristics of Transformational Leadership • Image building • Image communication • Arousing followers • High need for power • Strong in self-efficacy • Moral rightness

  39. Level 5 Leadership • Strong will (determination) • Personal humility • Vs. Pseudotransformational leaders • Careerists • Pass on the praise and accept the blame

  40. Other Leadership Thoughts • Bridge Leadership • Lateral leadership • Courage • Start yourself • Mentor • Learning

  41. Other Leadership Considerations • Are people born as leaders or can they be trained? • Darkside