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Management and Organization Behavior. MGMT 3140 Leadership. Leadership. Basic leadership theories Situational leadership considerations Attribution in leadership Transactional and Transformational leadership. Opening Case Berkshire Hathaway.

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  • Basic leadership theories
  • Situational leadership considerations
  • Attribution in leadership
  • Transactional and Transformational leadership
opening case berkshire hathaway
Opening Case Berkshire Hathaway
  • “Keep a group of people enthused about what they do when they have no financial need whatsoever to do it.” – Warren Buffett
why do we study leadership
Why Do We Study Leadership?
  • Born into people?
  • Something that can be learned?
  • Strategic substance
  • Interpersonal skills
  • Produce results
  • Competitive advantage
  • Seize opportunities
  • Concerned with detail…
what do we want from leaders
What Do We Want from Leaders?
  • Old stories
  • Monaco
  • Military
leadership at ge
Leadership at GE
  • “Dare” to differentiate
  • Constantly raise the bar
  • Don’t be friends with the boss…(HR)
    • Be candid in private
  • Become easy to replace
  • Be inclusive
  • Free up others to do their job
  • Keep it simple
management leadership
Management / Leadership
  • Transactional
  • Transformational
  • Followers … (effective)
  • Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals
    • Formal
    • Informal
  • Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help
leadership power
Leadership Power
  • Legitimate
  • Reward
  • Coercive
  • Referent
  • Expert
individual considerations
Individual Considerations
  • Type A personalities
  • Type B personalities
  • Theory X, Y
  • Autocratic, democratic
early approaches to leadership
Early Approaches to Leadership
  • Leader Trait Approach
  • Behavior Approach
early approaches to leadership1
Early Approaches to Leadership
  • The trait approach seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess.
  • The behavior approach focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in.
the leader trait approach also known as the great person approach


Integrity and honesty


Task-relevant knowledge

Intelligence/cognitive ability

Dominance (pro-social power motivation )

Emotional maturity

The Leader Trait Approach(also known as the great person approach)
the leader behavior approach
The Leader Behavior Approach





(Group Maintenance)

the leader behavior approach1
The Leader Behavior Approach
  • Task/Mission
  • People
      • See lists page 444
participation styles
Participation Styles
  • Autocratic
  • Democratic
  • Laissez-faire
trait and behavior approach misses
Trait and Behavior Approach Misses
  • Trait = what leaders are like
  • Behavior = what leaders do
  • Both ignore the situation
vroom and yetton model
Vroom and Yetton Model





fiedler s contingency theory of leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership
  • Leadership effectiveness determined by
    • The characteristic of individuals
    • The situations in which they find themselves
  • Distinct leader styles
    • Relationship-oriented
    • Task-oriented
fiedler s contingency theory of leadership1

Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates

Getting job done is second priority


Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks

Getting job done is first priority

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership
measuring leader style
Measuring Leader Style
  • Least preferred co-employee scale
    • High LPC leaders = relationship-oriented
    • Low LPC leaders = task-oriented
situational characteristics
Situational Characteristics
  • Leader-Member Relations
  • Task Structure
  • Position Power
advice to managers
Advice to Managers
  • Do not expect leaders to change their leader style from task-oriented to relationship-oriented or vice versa.
  • Assign task-oriented leaders to very unfavorable or to very favorable situations. Assign relationship-oriented leaders to moderately favorable situations.
  • If you or one of your subordinates is a relationship-oriented leader in a very unfavorable situation, try to increase the favorability of the situation by improving leader-member relations, increasing task structure by clarifying goals or ways to achieve goals, or raising levels of position power.
situational leadership
Situational Leadership
  • Hersey and Blanchard
leader member exchange theory
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
  • A theory that describes the different kinds of relationships that may develop between a leader and a follower.
  • Leader-follower Dyad-.
  • In-group-
  • Out-group-
path goal theory
Path-Goal Theory

A theory which describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors leaders can engage in to motivate followers.

guidelines for path goal theory
Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory
  • Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace
  • Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes
  • Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level
path goal theory types of behaviors
Path-Goal Theory: Types of Behaviors
  • Directive behavior
  • Supportive behavior
  • Participative behavior
  • Achievement-oriented behavior
substitutes and neutralizers
Substitutes and Neutralizers
  • Leadership Substitute: Something that acts in place of a formal leader and makes leadership unnecessary (functional).
    • Intrinsic motivation of subordinates
    • Skill level of subordinates and nature of work
  • Leadership Neutralizer: Something that prevents a leader from having any influence and negates a leader’s efforts (dysfunctional).
    • Lack of ability to reward/punish
    • Physical distance between leader and workers
leadership attribution
Leadership Attribution
  • Leadership prototypes
    • Traits & behaviors
    • Depends on job situation
    • Depends on local culture
  • Praise and blame
    • Why do leaders get fired?
new topics in leadership research
New Topics in Leadership Research
  • Transformational and Charismatic Leadership
  • Transactional Leadership
characteristics of transformational leadership
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership




Developmental Consideration



characteristics of transformational leadership1
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership
  • Image building
  • Image communication
  • Arousing followers
  • High need for power
  • Strong in self-efficacy
  • Moral rightness
level 5 leadership
Level 5 Leadership
  • Strong will (determination)
  • Personal humility
  • Vs. Pseudotransformational leaders
    • Careerists
  • Pass on the praise and accept the blame
other leadership thoughts
Other Leadership Thoughts
  • Bridge Leadership
  • Lateral leadership
  • Courage
  • Start yourself
    • Mentor
    • Learning
other leadership considerations
Other Leadership Considerations
  • Are people born as leaders or can they be trained?
  • Darkside